Cannabis and CBD
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and Cannabidiol (CBD).
(cannabinoid) The second most common phytocannibanoid
Click on a study title below to open a new tab with full article, or click on a compound to see it's full list of research.
Compounds Topics Title Date
CBD,CBG ovarian cancer in vitro via experiment Evaluation of the effects of cannabinoids CBD and CBG on human ovarian cancerc ells in vitro Jan 2019
Action Pathway: GPR55
CBD and CBG induced dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on the ovarian cancer cells tested with activity at micromolar concentrations towards the A2780 and A2780/CP70 cancer cells whilst displaying less activity against the non-cancer cells. CBD was the more potent of the two cannabinoids. However, the difference observed was not significant compared to CBG. CBD and CBG in combination with the established chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin showed synergistic effects in the cancer cells but importantly, CBD and CBG did not synergise with carboplatin in the non-cancer ARPE19 cells.
CBD opioid,heroin,addiction in humans via placebo trial Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial May 2019
Ingestion Method: oral 400-800mg
Positive  Acute CBD administration, in contrast to placebo, significantly reduced both craving and anxiety induced by the presentation of salient drug cues compared with neutral cues. CBD also showed significant protracted effects on these measures 7 days after the final short-term (3-day) CBD exposure. In addition, CBD reduced the drug cue-induced physiological measures of heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. There were no significant effects on cognition, and there were no serious adverse effects.
CBD toxicity,side effects via review Cannabidiol Adverse Effects and Toxicity Jun 2019
In animals, CBD AEs included developmental toxicity, embryo-fetal mortality, central nervous system inhibition and neurotoxicity, hepatocellular injuries, spermatogenesis reduction, organ weight alterations, male reproductive system alterations, and hypotension, although at doses higher than recommended for human pharmacotherapies. Human CBD studies for epilepsy and psychiatric disorders reported CBD-induced drug-drug interactions, hepatic abnormalities, diarrhea, fatigue, vomiting, and somnolence.
CBD epilepsy via model The proposed multimodal mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD) in epilepsy: modulation of intracellular calcium and adenosine-mediated signaling May 2019
Action Pathway: GPR55,TRPV1,ENT1
While the precise mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anticonvulsant properties in humans remain unknown, growing preclinical evidence suggests CBD reduces neuronal hyperexcitability through a unique multimodal mechanism of action. CBD antagonizes GPR55 at excitatory synapses, desensitizes TRPV1 channels, and inhibits adenosine reuptake.
CBD safety in mice via experiment Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Lacks on Detrimental Effects on Memory, Motor Performance and Anxiety in C57BL/6J Mice May 2019
Our results demonstrate that prolonged CBD treatment has no negative effect on the behavior of adult C57Bl/6J mice.
CBD autism in humans via trial (n=188) Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy Jan 2019
Ingestion Method: cannabis oil containing 30% CBD and 1.5% THC
Positive  After six months of treatment 82.4% of patients (155) were in active treatment and 60.0% (93) have been assessed; 28 patients (30.1%) reported a significant improvement, 50 (53.7%) moderate, 6 (6.4%) slight and 8 (8.6%) had no change in their condition.
cannabis,THC,CBD,THCV,cannabinoids entourage via review The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin Jan 2008
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
It is now well established that delta-9-THC is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor partial agonist and that depending on the expression level and coupling efficiency of these receptors it will either activate them or block their activation by other cannabinoids.
CBD appetite supress,cud in humans via trial (n=94) Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis Aug 2010
Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial Opposite Effects of delta--9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology Feb 2010
Ingestion Method: 10 mg of THC, 600 mg of CBD
Positive  delta--9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the striatum during verbal recall, in the hippocampus during the response inhibition task, in the amygdala when subjects viewed fearful faces, in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech, and in the occipital cortex during visual processing. In the second experiment, pretreatment with CBD prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms by delta--9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
CBD anti-inflamatory in mice Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting Alpha3 glycine receptors June 2012
Action Pathway: alpha-3 GlyR
Spinal alpha-3 GlyRs have been proposed as an important target for pain treatment. However, the alpha-3 GlyR-based therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic pain or other diseases are not yet available. The current study has provided several lines of evidence to suggest that CBD and DH-CBD suppress persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting the alpha-3 GlyRs in rodents.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in mice Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Aug 2011
Action Pathway: Id-1
Our data demonstrate the efficacy of CBD in pre-clinical models of breast cancer. The results have the potential to lead to the development of novel non-toxic compounds for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis, and the information gained from these experiments broaden our knowledge of both Id-1 and cannabinoid biology as it pertains to cancer progression.
CBD cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms Jan 2013
Action Pathway: TRPM8
Cannabidiol (CBD) significantly inhibited cell viability. Other compounds became effective in cells deprived of serum for 24 h. Several BDS were more potent than the pure compounds in the presence of serum
CBD cancer in vitro via review Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug April 2012
The present review will focus on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer and highlights the importance of exploring CBD/CBD analogues as alternative therapeutic agents.
CBD stroke via review Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke Jun 2010
Action Pathway: CB1
In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.
CBD acne in vitro Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes July 2014
Action Pathway: TRPV4
Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in vitro Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer Jan 2015
We show here -for the first time-that CBD significantly inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced proliferation and chemotaxis of breast cancer cells
CBD vasorelaxant,anti-inflamatory in vitro Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation Sept 2015
Action Pathway: CB1,TRP
This study shows, for the first time, that CBD causes vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via activation of CB1 and TRP channels, and is endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent.
CBD anxiety in humans via review Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders Sept 2015
Action Pathway: CB1,5HT1A
Positive  Preclinical evidence conclusively demonstrates CBDs efficacy in reducing anxiety behaviors relevant to multiple disorders, including PTSD, GAD, PD, OCD, and SAD, with a notable lack of anxiogenic effects. CBDs anxiolytic actions appear to depend upon CB1Rs and 5-HT1ARs in several brain regions; however, investigation of additional receptor actions may reveal further mechanisms.
CBD opioid via review Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage Aug 2015
Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse.
CBD epilepsy,anti-inflamatory,neuroprotective via review Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders May 2014
The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; the alpha-3 and alpha-1 glycine receptors; and the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects.
cannabinoids,CBD,THC cancer via article Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids Mar 2016
Action Pathway: VEGF,CB1,CB2
In cancer cells, cannabinoids block the activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) pathway, an inducer of angiogenesis.
CBD ibd,anti-inflamatory in mice An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse Oct 2016
In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.
CBD ptsd,anxiety,insomnia in humans via case study (n=1) Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report Oct 2016
Ingestion Method: 25mg bedtime, 6mg-12mg spray for anxiety
Positive  Although studies have demonstrated the calming, anti-inflammatory, and relaxing effects of CBD, clinical data from actual cases is minimal. This case study offers evidence that CBD is effective as a safe alternative treatment to traditional psychiatric medications for reducing anxiety and insomnia.
CBD cud in humans via trial (n=20) Therapeutic Effects of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment on Psychological Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial Mar 2018
Ingestion Method: 200mg oral daily
CBD was well tolerated with no reported side effects; however, participants retrospectively reported reduced euphoria when smoking cannabis. No impairments to cognition were found, nor were there deleterious effects on psychological function.
CBD ptsd via review Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials Jul 2018
Preclinical studies in different rodent behavioral models have shown that CBD can both facilitate the extinction of aversive memories and block their reconsolidation, possibly through potentialization of the eCB system. These results, combined with the currently available pharmacological treatments for PTSD being limited, necessitated testing CBD use with the same therapeutic purpose in humans as well.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=48) Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function Sept 2018
Ingestion Method: vaporized THC 8 mg vs CBD 16 mg vs THC 8 mg + CBD 16 mg
Negative  The main findings of this study were an increase in psychotomimetic symptoms following administration of both THC alone and the combination of THC + CBD. Administration of both THC and the combination (THC + CBD) increased negative symptoms on the BPRS, along with perceptual distortions and cognitive disorganisation on the PSI. Lower frequency cannabis users experienced a reduction in psychotomimetic symptoms following CBD alone compared with placebo. Both THC and THC + CBD impaired performance on episodic and working memory tasks. Contrary to hypotheses, CBD did not offset the psychotomimetic effects of THC.
CBD anti-convulsant via review Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis Sept 2018
Patients treated with CBD-rich extracts reported lower average dose (6.0 mg/kg/day) than those using purified CBD (25.3 mg/kg/day). The reports of mild (158/216, 76% vs. 148/447, 33%, p < 0.001) and severe (41/155, 26% vs. 23/328, 7%, p < 0.0001) adverse effects were more frequent in products containing purified CBD than in CBD-rich extracts. CBD-rich extracts seem to present a better therapeutic profile than purified CBD, at least in this population of patients with refractory epilepsy.
cannabis,THC,CBD pain,anti-inflamatory via review Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment Sept 2018
Neutral  The clinical evidence collated to date is confounded by a number of factors, including studies with mixed patient populations, use of different cannabinoid preparations and in various formulations, and wide dosing ranges. Cannabis-derivative-based medicines may be able to enrich the drug treatment arsenal for chronic pain and inflammation conditions, although this is very much open to debate at the moment.
CBD pharmacology in humans via review A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans Nov 2018
The half-life of cannabidiol was reported between 1.4 and 10.9 h after oromucosal spray, 2-5 days after chronic oral administration, 24 h after i.v., and 31 h after smoking. Bioavailability following smoking was 31% however no other studies attempted to report the absolute bioavailability of CBD following other routes in humans, despite i.v formulations being available. The area-under-the-curve and Cmax increase in dose-dependent manners and are reached quicker following smoking/inhalation compared to oral/oromucosal routes. Cmax is increased during fed states and in lipid formulations. Tmax is reached between 0 and 4 h.
THC,CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro Synthetic Cannabinoid Activity Against Colorectal Cancer Cells Dec 2018
In summary, we identified 10 synthetic cannabinoids demonstrating reproducible activity against human cells, with seven compounds reducing viability only in CRC cells.
Epidiolex,CBD epilepsy via review Epidiolex as adjunct therapy for treatment of refractory epilepsy: a comprehensive review with a focus on adverse effects Feb 2019
More recently, several randomized controlled and open label trials have studied the effects of Epidiolex, a 99% pure oral CBD extract, on patients with refractory epilepsy. This in turn has led to the FDA approval of and more recently, to the Drug Enforcement Administrations placement of Epidiolex into schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)
CBD,cannabinoids stroke via review The endocannabinoid system and stroke: A focused review Jan 2019
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Development of novel neuroprotectants is of paramount importance. This review seeks to summarize the recent evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid signaling system in stroke pathophysiology, as well as the evidence from preclinical studies regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids as neuroprotective therapies in the treatment of stroke.
CBD anti-psychotic via review Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Apr 2006
The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD
CBD,CBG,CBC cancer,breast cancer in vitro Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. May 2006
Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that, of the five natural compounds tested, cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth (IC(50) between 6.0 and 10.6 microM), with significantly lower potency in noncancer cells. The cannabidiol-rich extract was equipotent to cannabidiol, whereas cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank of potency.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in mice via model Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Nov 2007
In conclusion, CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.
THC,CBD ms,neuropathy in humans via placebo trial (n=64) Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Sep 2007
Ingestion Method: Sativex THC/CBD (27 mg/mL: 25 mg/mL) spray
Positive  THC/CBD was effective, with no evidence of tolerance, in these select patients with CNP and MS who completed approximately 2 years of treatment (n = 28).
CBN,CBD,CBC,THC,CBN anti-bacterial in vitro anti-bacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study. August 2008
All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance
CBD anti-psychotic via review Potential antipsychotic properties of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists. Mar 2010
In this review, both preclinical and clinical studies investigating the potential antipsychotic effects of both CBD and SR141716 are presented together with the possible underlying mechanisms of action.
CBG,CBD anti-inflamatory in vitro Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa. Jan 2011
Action Pathway: COX-1/2
In the present work, the six cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-?-THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-?-THC-A), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production. For this purpose an in vitro enzyme based COX-1/COX-2 inhibition assay and a cell based prostaglandin production radioimmunoassay were used.
CBD anti-inflamatory in vitro Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor. Jan 2012
Ingestion Method: 20mg/kg
Action Pathway: A2A
Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.
CBD weight loss, appetite supress Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns. Sept 2012
Furthermore, cannabidiol reduced food intake in line with some existing reports, supporting the need for further mechanistic and behavioral work examining possible anti-obesity effects of cannabidiol.
CBD anxiety,stress in mice via experiment The anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol on chronically stressed mice depends on hippocampal neurogenesis: involvement of the endocannabinoid system Jul 2013
Ingestion Method: 30 mg/kg i.p.
Action Pathway: CB1
These findings support that the anxiolytic effect of chronic CBD administration in stressed mice depends on its proneurogenic action in the adult hippocampus by facilitating endocannabinoid-mediated signalling.
CBD addiction,nicotine in humans via placebo trial (n=24) Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Sept 2013
Positive  Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up.
CBD gvhd in humans via trial (n=48) Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study. Oct 2015
Ingestion Method: 300mg/day
The combination of CBD with standard GVHD prophylaxis is a safe and promising strategy to reduce the incidence of acute GVHD. A randomized double-blind controlled study is warranted.
CBD depression in rats via experiment Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex-Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors. Apr 2016
Ingestion Method: 10-60 nmol injection
Action Pathway: 5HT1A,CB1
CBD (PL: 10-60 nmol; IL:45-60 nmol) and 8-OH-DPAT (10 nmol) administration significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST, without changing locomotor activity in the OFT
CBD epilepsy via review Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential May 2016
In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile.
CBD cancer,breast cancer,prostate cancer via review Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Nov 2016
Cannabinoids, in particular the non-psychoactive CBD, may be promising tools in combination therapy for breast and prostate cancer, due to their direct antitumor effects, their ability to improve the efficacy of conventional antitumor drugs and their usefulness as palliative treatment. Nevertheless, deeper studies to fully establish the mechanisms responsible for their antitumour and pro-tumour properties and their formulation in efficient delivery systems remain to be established.
CBD diabetes in mice via placebo trial Experimental cannabidiol treatment reduces early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes. 2016
Ingestion Method: 5 mg/kg CBD
Positive  CBD-treated NOD mice developed T1D later and showed significantly reduced leukocyte activation and increased FCD in the pancreatic microcirculation.
CBD alzheimers in vitro Cannabidiol Modulates the Expression of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Dec 2016
Action Pathway: TRPV1
In conclusion, we have found that pre-treatment with CBD prevented the expression of proteins potentially involved in tau phosphorylation and Abeta- production in GMSCs. Therefore, we suggested that GMSCs preconditioned with CBD possess a molecular profile that might be more beneficial for the treatment of AD.
CBD vaccine injury in humans via trial (n=12) Short-Term Efficacy of CBD-Enriched Hemp Oil in Girls with Dysautonomic Syndrome after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Feb 2017
Ingestion Method: 25mg/kg up to 150mg/kg
SF-36 showed significant benefits in the physical component score (P < 0.02), vitality (P < 0.03) and social role functioning (P < 0.02) after the treatment. The administration of hemp oil also significantly reduced body pain according to the SF-36 assessment. No significant differences from the start of treatment to several months post-treatment were detected in role limitations due to emotional reactions
CBD schitzophrenia in humans via placebo trial (n=88) Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Mar 2018
Ingestion Method: 1000mg CBD
Positive  After 6 weeks of treatment, compared with the placebo group, the CBD group had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms (PANSS: treatment difference=-1.4, 95% CI=-2.5, -0.2) and were more likely to have been rated as improved (CGI-I: treatment difference=-0.5, 95% CI=-0.8, -0.1) and as not severely unwell (CGI-S: treatment difference=-0.3, 95% CI=-0.5, 0.0) by the treating clinician.
CBD alzheimers,neuroprotective in vitro via experiment Cannabidiol Reverses Deficits in Hippocampal LTP in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Mar 2019
Action Pathway: PPAR?
However in the presence of the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 the neuroprotective effect of CBD was prevented. Our data suggests that this major component of Cannabis sativa, which lacks psychoactivity may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of AD.
CBD depression in mice Cannabidiol Induces Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects Through Increased BDNF Signaling and Synaptogenesis in the Prefrontal Cortex. Jun 2018
Ingestion Method: 7-30 mg/kg
Action Pathway: BDNF
These results indicate that CBD induces fast and sustained antidepressant-like effect in distinct animal models relevant for depression. These effects may be related to rapid changes in synaptic plasticity in the mPFC through activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. The data support a promising therapeutic profile for CBD as a new fast-acting antidepressant drug.
Epidiolex,CBD epilepsy in humans via trial (n=45) Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex(R)) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes. Sep 2018
This open-label drug trial provides class III evidence for the long-term safety and efficacy of CBD administration in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) associated with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in vitro via experiment Novel mechanism of cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Oct 2018
Action Pathway: PPAR?, mTOR and cyclin D1
Positive  In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay.
CBD,CBDV dmd in mice via experiment Effects of non-euphoric plant cannabinoids on muscle quality and performance of dystrophic mdx mice. May 2019
In mdx mice, CBD (60 mg?kg-1 ) and CBDV (60 mg?kg-1 ) prevented the loss of locomotor activity, reduced inflammation and restored autophagy.
CBD arthritis in dogs via placebo trial Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Jul 2018
Ingestion Method: 2mg/kg CBD oil
This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA.
THC,CBD,cannabis migraine,headache,pain in humans via review Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science. Jul 2018
Positive  There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache.
CBD addiction,methamphetamine in rats via experiment (n=32) Cannabidiol treatment reduces the motivation to self-administer methamphetamine and methamphetamine-primed relapse in rats. Dec 2018
Ingestion Method: 80mg/kg
Positive  Cannabidiol (80 mg/kg, but not 40 mg/kg, or 20 mg/kg) reduced the motivation to self-administer methamphetamine and attenuated methamphetamine-primed relapse to methamphetamine-seeking behavior after extinction.
CBD ms in mice via experiment Avidekel Cannabis extracts and cannabidiol are as efficient as Copaxone in suppressing EAE in SJL/J mice. Feb 2019
Ingestion Method: CBD-rich, ?9-THC low Cannabis indica subspecies (Avidekel)
Our data show that CBD and purified Avidekel extracts are as efficient as Copaxone to alleviate the symptoms of proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced EAE in SJL/J mice. No synergistic effect was observed by combining CBD or Avidekel extracts with Copaxone. Our data support the use of Avidekel extracts in the treatment of MS symptoms.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via review Interaction between warfarin and cannabis Jan 2019
The in vitro study indicated that THC inhibits the CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of warfarin. One case study reported of a man who on two occasions of increased marijuana use experienced INR values above 10 as well as bleeding. The other case study reported of a patient who initiated treatment with a liquid formulation of cannabidiol for the management of epilepsy, ultimately necessitating a 30% reduction in warfarin dose to maintain therapeutic INR values.
CBD anxiety in humans via placebo trial (n=57) Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Jan 2019
Compared to placebo, pretreatment with 300 mg of CBD significantly reduced anxiety during the speech. No significant differences in VAMS scores were observed between groups receiving CBD 150 mg, 600 mg and placebo.
CBD,CBDV neuroprotective in vitro Low doses of widely consumed cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabidivarin) cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human-derived cells. Jan 2019
Negative  Both compounds induced DNA damage in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) experiments in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in buccal-derived cells (TR146) at low levels (>= 0.2 uM).
CBD autism in humans via trial (n=60) Brief Report: Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Behavioral Problems-A Retrospective Feasibility Study. Oct 2018
Positive  Following the cannabis treatment, behavioral outbreaks were much improved or very much improved in 61% of patients. This preliminary study supports feasibility of CBD-based cannabis trials in children with ASD.
CBD ptsd in humans via trial (n=11) Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. Apr 2019
Positive  From the total sample of 11 patients, 91% (n = 10) experienced a decrease in PTSD symptom severity, as evidenced by a lower PCL-5 score at 8 weeks than at their initial baseline. The mean total PCL-5 score decreased 28%, from a mean baseline score of 51.82 down to 37.14, after eight consecutive weeks of treatment with CBD. CBD was generally well tolerated, and no patients discontinued treatment due to side effects.
Epidiolex,CBD epilepsy via review Cannabidiol: A New Hope for Patients With Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes. Jun 2019
This is the first cannabis-derived medication with approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. This CBD formulation significantly reduces seizures as an adjunct to standard antiepileptic therapies in patients >=2 years old with DS and LGS and is well tolerated.
CBD autism in humans via trial (n=53) Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-morbidities Jan 2019
Positive  Self-injury and rage attacks (n = 34) improved in 67.6% and worsened in 8.8%. Hyperactivity symptoms (n = 38) improved in 68.4%, did not change in 28.9% and worsened in 2.6%. Sleep problems (n = 21) improved in 71.4% and worsened in 4.7%. Anxiety (n = 17) improved in 47.1% and worsened in 23.5%. Adverse effects, mostly somnolence and change in appetite were mild.
CBD cancer,melanoma in mice via trial (n=18) Cannabinoids as a Potential New and Novel Treatment for Melanoma: A Pilot Study in a Murine Model. Mar 2019
Ingestion Method: 5 mg/kg
Positive  A significant decrease in tumor size was detected in mice treated with CBD when compared with the control group (P = 0.01). The survival curve of melanoma tumors treated with CBD increased when compared with the control group and was statistically significant (P = 0.04).
THC,CBD cancer,pancreatic cancer in humans via review Potential Use of Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer. Jan 2019
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2,GPR55
Neutral  Cannabinol receptors have been identified in pancreatic cancer with several studies showing in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Cannabinoids may be an effective adjunct for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data on the anticancer effectiveness of various cannabinoid formulations, treatment dosing, precise mode of action, and clinical studies are lacking.
CBD fragilex via review Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with Cannabidiol: A Case Series Study and Brief Review of the Literature. Mar 2019
Multiple experimental and clinical models of FXS combine to highlight the therapeutic potential of CBD for management of FXS. All three patients described in the case series exhibited functional benefit following the use of oral CBD+ solutions, including noticeable reductions in social avoidance and anxiety, as well as improvements in sleep, feeding, motor coordination, language skills, anxiety, and sensory processing. Two of the described patients exhibited a reemergence of a number of FXS symptoms following cessation of CBD+ treatment (e.g., anxiety), which then improved again after reintroduction of CBD+ treatment.
CBD epilepsy in humans via placebo trial (n=225) Don't Fear the Reefer-Evidence Mounts for Plant-Based Cannabidiol as Treatment for Epilepsy. Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: 10 - 20 mg/kg
Positive  The median percentage reduction from baseline in drop seizure frequency during the treatment period was 41.9% in the 20-mg cannabidiol group, 37.2% in the 10-mg cannabidiol group, and 17.2% in the placebo group ( P = .005 for the 20-mg cannabidiol group vs placebo group, and P = .002 for the 10-mg cannabidiol group vs placebo group)
CBD drug potentiator in humans via article Evidence of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and tacrolimus. Apr 2019
A participant in a CBD clinical trial for epilepsy who was also receiving tacrolimus showed an approximately 3-fold increase in dose-normalized tacrolimus concentrations while receiving 2000-2900 mg/day of CBD.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=17) Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain's resting-state functional connectivity. Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: cannabis 8mg THC, cannabis 8mg THC + 10mg CBD
Positive  THC disrupts the DMN, and the PCC is a key brain region involved in the subjective experience of THC intoxication. CBD restores disruption of the salience network by THC, which may explain its potential to treat disorders of salience such as psychosis and addiction.
CBD ptsd via review Cannabinoid Regulation of Fear and Anxiety: an Update. Apr 2019
The findings from the relevant clinical literature are still very preliminary but are nonetheless encouraging. Based on this preclinical evidence, larger-scale placebo-controlled clinical studies are warranted to investigate the effects of cannabidiol in particular as an adjunct to psychological therapy or medication to determine its potential utility for treating anxiety-related disorders in the future.
THC,CBD driving in humans via placebo trial (n=14) Cannabidiol (CBD) content in vaporized cannabis does not prevent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of driving and cognition May 2019
Ingestion Method: vaporzation 11% thc vs 11% thc+11%cbd
Negative  Both active cannabis types increased lane weaving during a car-following task but had little effect on other driving performance measures. Active cannabis types impaired performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), Divided Attention Task (DAT) and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) with impairment on the latter two tasks worse with THC/CBD equivalent cannabis. Subjective drug effects (e.g., stoned) and confidence in driving ability did not vary with CBD content. Peak plasma THC concentrations were higher following THC/CBD equivalent cannabis relative to THC-dominant cannabis, suggesting a possible pharmacokinetic interaction.
CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro via experiment Cannabidiol Enhances the Therapeutic Effects of TRAIL by Upregulating DR5 in Colorectal Cancer. May 2019
Action Pathway: DR5
Positive  Here, we found that the combination of cannabidiol and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) produces synergistic antitumor effects in vitro
CBD side effects in humans via review Use of cannabidiol oil in children May 2019
Ingestion Method: CBD oil
We advise medical professionals who encounter young patients who may potentially be using CBD oil, to discuss its questionable quality and potential side effects and interactions. If a patient presents with poorly-understood fever, diarrhoea, vomiting or drowsiness, then the side effects of CBD oil should be considered.
THC,CBD sedative in humans via review The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials. May 2019
Positive  Many of the reviewed studies suggested that cannabinoids could improve sleep quality, decrease sleep disturbances, and decrease sleep onset latency.
CBD,CBN,CBC pain in rats Cannabidiol, cannabinol and their combinations act as peripheral analgesics in a rat model of myofascial pain May 2019
These results suggest that peripheral application of these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may provide analgesic relief for chronic muscle pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia without central side effects.
CBD epilepsy in vitro Investigating the Therapeutic Mechanism of Cannabidiol in a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Call (iPSC)-Based Cellular Model of Dravet Syndrome. Jun 2019
Our findings suggest a cell type-dependent mechanism for the therapeutic action of CBD in Dravet syndrome that is independent of sodium channel activity.
CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects. Mar 1976
Ingestion Method: placebo/25 mug/kg of THC + placebo/150 mug/kg of CBD
Positive  CBD significantly attenuated the subjective euphoria of THC. Psychomotor impairment due to THC was not significantly altered by the simultaneous administration of CBD, but a trend indicating a decrease in THC-like effects was observed after the combination.
THC,CBD EB in humans via trial (n=3) Combined THC and CBD to treat pain in EB Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: THC+CBD oil
Positive  All three participants reported a significant reduction in pain levels experienced whilst undergoing CBM oil treatment relative to their previous drug regime. An additional benefit was reduction in itching.
CBD anxiety,sleep in humans via study (n=72) Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series Jan 2019
Ingestion Method: 25 mg/d to 175 mg/d
Current understanding of the physiology and neurologic pathways points to a benefit with anxiety-related issues. The results of our clinical report support the existing scientific evidence. In our study, we saw no evidence of a safety issue that would limit future studies. In this evaluation, CBD appears to be better tolerated than routine psychiatric medications.
CBD metabolism,safety via review Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy Mar 2016
The present overview summarizes our current knowledge on the pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of CBD in humans, reviews studies on the biological activity of CBD metabolites either in vitro or in vivo, and discusses relevant drug-drug interactions. To facilitate further research in the area, the reported syntheses of CBD metabolites are also catalogued.
CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=24) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract. Dec 2005
Despite the large variation of the data, evidence emerged from the total of the results that CBD partially inhibits the CYP 2C catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC. The probability for this inhibition is particularly high for oral intake because THC and CBD attain relatively high concentrations in the liver and because of the high first-pass metabolism of THC. However, the effect of CBD is small in comparison to the variability caused by other factors.
Sativex,CBD drug potentiator,metabolism in humans via trial (n=9) Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration. Jan 2011
Decreases in mean 11-OH-THC Cmax and AUC0->10.5 hafter only high-dose Sativex might indicate that CBD does not interact with THC at lower doses (5 mg), but could alter THC metabolism at higher CBD doses (>=15 mg)
CBD safety via review An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies Jun 2017
Neutral  This review also illustrates that some important toxicological parameters are yet to be studied, for example, if CBD has an effect on hormones. Additionally, more clinical trials with a greater number of participants and longer chronic CBD administration are still lacking.
CBD safety in mice via experiment Hepatotoxicity of a Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract in the Mouse Model. Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: 0, 246, 738, or 2460 mg/kg
Negative  In conclusion, CBD exhibited clear signs of hepatotoxicity, possibly of a cholestatic nature. The involvement of numerous pathways associated with lipid and xenobiotic metabolism raises serious concerns about potential drug interactions as well as the safety of CBD.
CBD blood pressure,cardiovascular in rats via experiment Cannabidiol Affects the Bezold-Jarisch Reflex via TRPV1 and 5-HT3Receptors and Has Peripheral Sympathomimetic Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats May 2019
Action Pathway: TRPV1,5HT-3
In pithed rats, CBD increased heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and decreased diastolic BP (DBP) in a manner insensitive to adrenalectomy.
CBD,CBDV epilepsy in vitro via experiment Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. Nov 2014
Action Pathway: TRPV1
However, TRPV1 was strongly phosphorylated (and hence likely sensitized) in Mg(2+)-free solution-treated hippocampal tissue, and both capsaicin and CBDV caused TRPV1 dephosphorylation, consistent with TRPV1 desensitization. We propose that CBDV effects on TRP channels should be studied further in different in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy.
CBD,THC drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=36) A randomised controlled trial of vaporised delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination in frequent and infrequent cannabis users: acute intoxication effects. Feb 2019
CBD showed some intoxicating properties relative to placebo. Low doses of CBD when combined with THC enhanced, while high doses of CBD reduced the intoxicating effects of THC. The enhancement of intoxication by low-dose CBD was particularly prominent in infrequent cannabis users and was consistent across objective and subjective measures.
CBD obesity,weight loss in rats via experiment Cannabidiol inhibits sucrose self-administration by CB1 and CB2 receptor mechanisms in rodents Jun 2019
Ingestion Method: 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, ip
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Taken together, the present findings suggest that CBD may have therapeutic potential in reducing binge eating and the development of obesity.
CBD cancer,glioma in vitro via experiment Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism Apr 2005
These results reinforce the evidence of antitumoral properties of CBD, demonstrating its ability to limit tumor invasion, although the mechanism of its pharmacological effects remains to be clarified.
THC,CBD cancer in mice via experiment In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas. 1977
These drugs inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA acutely, but did not inhibit leucine uptake into tumor protein. At 24 h after treatment, cannabinoids did not inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA, leucine-3H uptake into protein or cytidine-3H into RNA.
CBD cancer,glioma in mice via experiment Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Mar 2004
In conclusion, the nonpsychoactive CBD was able to produce a significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting a possible application of CBD as an antineoplastic agent.
CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Aug 2012
In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPAR?-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.
THC,CBD appetite boost in humans via placebo trial (n=289) Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group. Jun 2006
Ingestion Method: CE (standardized for 2.5 mg THC and 1 mg cannabidiol) or THC (2.5 mg) or PL orally,
Action Pathway: twice daily for 6 weeks
Neutral  CE at the oral dose administered was well tolerated by these patients with CACS. No differences in patients' appetite or QOL were found either between CE, THC, and PL or between CE and THC at the dosages investigated.
CBD cancer,lung cancer in vitro Cannabinoids increase lung cancer cell lysis by lymphokine-activated killer cells via upregulation of ICAM-1. Nov 2014
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, enhanced the susceptibility of cancer cells to adhere to and subsequently be lysed by LAK cells, with both effects being reversed by a neutralizing ICAM-1 antibody
CBD cancer,lung cancer in mice Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Apr 2012
In athymic nude mice, CBD elicited a 2.6- and 3.0-fold increase of ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 protein in A549 xenografts, as compared to vehicle-treated animals, and an antimetastatic effect that was fully reversed by a neutralizing antibody against ICAM-1 [% metastatic lung nodules vs. isotype control (100%): 47.7% for CBD + isotype antibody and 106.6% for CBD + ICAM-1 antibody]. Overall, our data indicate that cannabinoids induce ICAM-1, thereby conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased cancer cell invasiveness.
CBD,THC cancer,glioma in vitro Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival Jan 2010
Our results suggest that the addition of CBD to delta-9-THC may improve the overall effectiveness of delta-9-THC in the treatment of glioblastoma in cancer patients.
CBD cancer,leukemia in vitro Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Oct 2003
Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line.
CBD crohns,ibd in humans via placebo trial (n=20) Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn's Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial. Jun 2017
Ingestion Method: 10mg
Negative  In this study of moderately active Crohn's disease, CBD was safe but had no beneficial effects. This could be due to lack of effect of CBD on Crohn's disease, but could also be due to the small dose of CBD, the small number of patients in the study, or the lack of the necessary synergism with other cannabinoids
CBD anti-inflamatory,skin cancer in vitro Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury Jun 2019
Down-regulation of genes involved in wound healing and skin inflammation was at least in part due to the presence of cannabidiol. Our findings provide new insights into the potential effect of Cannabisextracts against inflammation-based skin diseases.
CBD autism via review Autism Spectrum Disorder and Cannabidiol: Have We Seen This Movie Before? Nov 2018
This commentary provides guidance to clinicians who care for children with ASD. We identify the current level of evidence for the safe and effective use of CBD with children diagnosed with ASD and provide guidance for clinicians who encounter this population of children and families.