|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,asthma in mice via experiment||Differential Effects of Limonene on Inflammation via Activation of A2A and A2B Adenosine Receptors in Asthma||Apr 2019|
Action Pathway: A2AAR,A2BAR|
We have shown that limonene induces bronchodilation and lowers inflammation via A2A receptor activation (FASEB J April 2017 31:820.1) in a mouse model of asthma.
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.||Jul 2008|
Ingestion Method: 5mg/kg|
Action Pathway: CB2
BCP (500 nM) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in peripheral blood and attenuates LPS-stimulated Erk1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation in monocytes. Furthermore, peroral (E)-BCP at 5 mg/kg strongly reduces the carrageenan-induced inflammatory response in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking CB(2) receptors, providing evidence that this natural product exerts cannabimimetic effects in vivo.
|Humulene||anti-inflamatory in mice via experiment||Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene Alpha-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation||Oct 2009|
Ingestion Method: 1 mg?mL-1, by aerosol|
alpha--Humulene, given either orally or by aerosol, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory properties in a murine model of airways allergic inflammation, an effect that seemed to be mediated via reduction of inflammatory mediators, adhesion molecule expression and transcription factors activation.
|cannabinoids||anti-inflamatory via review||Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs||Aug 2010|
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2|
This review will focus on the potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T cells or other cellular immune components.
|THCV||anti-inflamatory in mice via experiment||The plant cannabinoid delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice||June 2010|
Ingestion Method: 1-5mg/kg|
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
THCV can activate CB2 receptors in vitro and decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice partly via CB1 and/or CB2 receptor activation.
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory,ibd in mice via experiment||Beta-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPAR? pathway||Mar 2011|
Ingestion Method: 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg, p.o.|
Action Pathway: CB2,PPAR?
These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
|CBD||anti-inflamatory in mice||Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting Alpha3 glycine receptors||June 2012|
Action Pathway: alpha-3 GlyR|
Spinal alpha-3 GlyRs have been proposed as an important target for pain treatment. However, the alpha-3 GlyR-based therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic pain or other diseases are not yet available. The current study has provided several lines of evidence to suggest that CBD and DH-CBD suppress persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting the alpha-3 GlyRs in rodents.
|Borneol||anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via placebo trial (n=36)||Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice||Apr 2013|
Ingestion Method: 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg|
Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.
|CBD||vasorelaxant,anti-inflamatory in vitro||Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation||Sept 2015|
Action Pathway: CB1,TRP|
This study shows, for the first time, that CBD causes vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via activation of CB1 and TRP channels, and is endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent.
|CBD||epilepsy,anti-inflamatory,neuroprotective via review||Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders||May 2014|
|The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; the alpha-3 and alpha-1 glycine receptors; and the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects.|
|Nerolidol||anti-inflamatory,parkinsons,neuroprotective in mice||Neuroprotective effect of nerolidol against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress induced by rotenone||Aug 2016|
|Our findings are the first to show that the neuroprotective effect of nerolidol is mediated through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which strongly supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of PD.|
|CBD||ibd,anti-inflamatory in mice||An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse||Oct 2016|
|In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.|
|O-1966, PF3845, JZL184, WWL70||TBI,anti-inflamatory in mice via review||Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury||Feb 2017|
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2|
TBI-induced behavioral deficits, such as learning and memory, neurological motor impairments, post-traumatic convulsions or seizures, and anxiety also respond to manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. As such, the endocannabinoid system possesses potential drugable receptor and enzyme targets for the treatment of diverse TBI pathology.
|CBG||anti-inflamatory in vitro||In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid||Jun 2018|
Ingestion Method: 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 uM|
Furthermore, CBG pre-treatment counteracted not only inflammation, as demonstrated by the reduction of IL-1beta-, TNF-alpha-, IFN-? and PPAR? protein levels assessed by immunocytochemistry, but also oxidative stress in NSC-34 cells treated with the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7.
|cannabis,THC,CBD||pain,anti-inflamatory via review||Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment||Sept 2018|
|Neutral The clinical evidence collated to date is confounded by a number of factors, including studies with mixed patient populations, use of different cannabinoid preparations and in various formulations, and wide dosing ranges. Cannabis-derivative-based medicines may be able to enrich the drug treatment arsenal for chronic pain and inflammation conditions, although this is very much open to debate at the moment.|
|cannabis||anti-inflamatory in vitro||The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis||Dec 2018|
|The different Cannabis chemotypes showed distinct compositions of terpenoids. The terpenoid-rich essential oils exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in vitro and in vivo, which vary according to their composition.|
|Limonene||pain,anti-inflamatory in mice||Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.||Jun 1999|
|The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.|
|Linalool||anti-inflamatory,pain in mice||(-)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain.||Jan 2003|
Ingestion Method: 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg|
The more pronounced effect of (-)-linalool on the writhing test with respect to the hot plate test is consistent with the observation that (-)-linalool possesses anti-inflammatory activity.
|Linalool||anti-inflamatory in rats||anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils.||Dec 2002|
Ingestion Method: essential oil from Citrus aurantium L.|
The results obtained indicate that linalool and the corresponding acetate play a major role in the anti-inflammatory activity displayed by the essential oils containing them, and provide further evidence suggesting that linalool and linalyl acetate-producing species are potentially anti-inflammatory agents.
|Myrcene,Limonene||anti-inflamatory in mice||Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species.||Aug 2003|
|The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene.|
|Humulene||anti-inflamatory in mice||Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea||Aug 2007|
|The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug.|
|Humulene||anti-inflamatory,pain in mice||Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in mice||Nov 2008|
|Taken together, these findings further contribute to an explanation of the topical and systemic anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties previously reported for the essential oil and for alpha-humulene obtained from Cordia verbenacea, they also provide support for the clinical studies conducted with the phytomedicine Acheflan.|
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Myrciaria tenella and Calycorectes sellowianus.||Apr 2010|
Ingestion Method: M. tenella oil|
However, in the systemic treatment with the essential oils (50 mg/kg p.o.) only the M. tenella oil was able to significantly reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for indomethacin (10 mg/kg), the positive control.
|CBG,CBD||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa.||Jan 2011|
Action Pathway: COX-1/2|
In the present work, the six cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-?-THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-?-THC-A), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production. For this purpose an in vitro enzyme based COX-1/COX-2 inhibition assay and a cell based prostaglandin production radioimmunoassay were used.
|Bisabolol||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Inhibitory effects of (-)-Alpha-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.||Oct 2011|
|Our results indicate that (-)-alpha--bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-kappa-B and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling.|
|Bisabolol||anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via model||Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (-)-Alpha-bisabolol in rodents.||Dec 2011|
|These findings suggest that the anti-nociceptive action of (-)-alpha--bisabolol is not linked to a central mechanism but instead is related to the inflammatory process.|
|Phellandrene,Terpinolene,Cymene,Pinene||cancer, anti-inflamatory,cancer,breast cancer in vitro||Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils||Apr 2012|
|The Solanum essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity in addition to the potent cytotoxic potential of S. erianthum leaf oil against Hs 578T and PC-3 cells.|
|CBD||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.||Jan 2012|
Ingestion Method: 20mg/kg|
Action Pathway: A2A
Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.
|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,cancer in mice||D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis.||Aug 2012|
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/kg|
We found that D-limonene (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) treatments to the mouse skin significantly reduced the TPA-induced (a) edema and hyperplasia (p < 0.001); (b) expression of cyclooxygenase-2; (c) ornithine decarboxylase activity (p < 0.001); and (d) [(3)H] thymidine incorporation into DNA (p < 0.001)
|Borneol||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Identification of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone as anti-inflammatory compounds in a Salvia officinalis L. infusion using human gingival fibroblasts.||Mar 2013|
Ingestion Method: Salvia officinalis L. infusion|
Therefore, the volatile compounds were found to be more effective than rosmarinic acid. 1,8-Cineole, borneol, camphor, and alpha--/beta--thujone chiefly contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of sage infusion in human gingival fibroblasts.
|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,colon in rats via experiment||Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans.||July 2013|
Ingestion Method: 10mg/kg oral|
In conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation.
|Cymene||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.||Apr 2014|
|The data showed that treatment with the p-cymene markedly attenuated inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-kappa-B protein level in the lungs, improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity.|
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via model||The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.||Apr 2014|
Action Pathway: CB2|
In a neuropathic pain model the chronic oral administration of BCP attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and reduced spinal neuroinflammation. Importantly, we found no signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of BCP after prolonged treatment.
|HU-308||anti-inflamatory,arthritis in vitro||Expression of cannabinoid receptor 2 and its inhibitory effects on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis||May 2014|
Action Pathway: CB2|
In RA-FLS, proinflammatory mediators up-regulate the expression of CB2R, which negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs. These data suggest that CB2R may be a potential therapeutic target of RA.
|Bisabolol||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Alpha-(-)-bisabolol reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ameliorates skin inflammation.||2014|
|These findings suggested that alpha--(-)-bisabolol may be a useful therapeutic candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation.|
|Linalool||anti-inflamatory in mice||Linalool and linalool complexed in Beta-cyclodextrin produce anti-hyperalgesic activity and increase Fos protein expression in animal model for fibromyalgia.||Oct 2014|
Ingestion Method: 25 mg/kg, p.o.|
LIN or LIN-CD produced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of mechanical hyperalgesia on chronic non-inflammatory muscle pain model, which remained for 24 h only in LIN-CD, and these compounds significantly (p < 0.05) activated neurons of the locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe magnus, and periaqueductal gray areas.
|Phellandrene||cancer,anti-inflamatory,leukemia in mice via experiment||Alpha-phellandrene, a Natural Active Monoterpene, Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo by Enhancing Macrophague Phagocytosis and Natural Killer Cell Activity||Aug 2014|
Ingestion Method: oral|
alpha--PA increased the percentage of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker) and MAC3 (macrophages) markers but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocytes) cell surface markers.
|Terpinene,Pinene||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Chemical composition and anti-inflammation activity of essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower.||May 2014|
Ingestion Method: essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower|
The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.
|Caryophyllene,Myrcene||arthritis,anti-inflamatory in vitro||Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis||Mar 2015|
|These data show that myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation.|
|Linalool||anti-inflamatory in mice||Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappa-B activation.||Dec 2015|
|In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-kappa-B activation.|
|Cymene||anti-inflamatory,copd in mice via experiment||Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema.||Dec 2016|
|Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.|
|Limonene||anti-oxidant,anti-inflamatory,intenstine in rats||D-limonene exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in an ulcerative colitis rat model via regulation of iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and ERK signaling pathways.||Apr 2017|
Action Pathway: iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta-|
In conclusion, D-limonene reduced MMP-2 and -9 mRNA expression levels via regulation of the iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta- and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in a UC rat model, indicating its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
|Terpineol||anti-inflamatory in mice||Alcoholic monoterpenes found in essential oil of aromatic spices reduce allergic inflammation by the modulation of inflammatory cytokines||Sep 2017|
|Monoterpenes significantly decrease leucocyte migration and TNF-alpha- levels, possibly by modulation of COX, PGE2 and H1 receptor, as demonstrated by molecular docking. These findings indicate that alcoholic monoterpenes can be an alternative for treatment of allergic inflammation and asthma.|
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Anti-inflammatory and anti-edematogenic action of the Croton campestris A. St.-Hil (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil and the compound beta--caryophyllene in in vivo models.||Mar 2018|
|This study supports the hypothesis that beta--caryophyllene, in association with other constituents present in the EOCC such as 1,8-cineole, contributed to the anti-inflammatory effect observed, in addition to suggesting that one of the mechanisms of action probably involves the inhibition of cytokines with the involvement of the arachidonic acid and histamine pathways.|
|Nerolidol||anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment||Chemical composition, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil of Bougainvillea glabra||Mar 2019|
Ingestion Method: 100-200mg/kg|
Positive The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oil was statistically significant p < 0.001 at all doses of when compared to the control while exhibiting an activity in tandem with the standard drug. For the 1st and 2nd h, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the anti-inflammatory activity was statistically very significant (p < 0.001)
|JWH-015||ra,anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment||Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist JWH-015 Inhibits Interleukin-1beta--Induced Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts and in Adjuvant Induced Arthritis Rat via Glucocorticoid Receptor||May 2019|
Action Pathway: GR|
Overall, our findings suggest that CB2 agonist JWH-015 elicits anti-inflammatory effects partly through GR. This compound could further be tested as an adjunct therapy for the management of pain and tissue destruction as a non-opioid for RA.
|Cannflavin||anti-inflamatory in vitro||Biosynthesis of cannflavins A and B from Cannabis sativa L||May 2019|
|Cannflavins exhibit anti-inflammatory activity that is thirty times that of aspirin.|
|Caryophyllene||anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment||Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene.||Oct 1996|
|Thus, beta-caryophyllene elicited anti-inflammatory effects without any indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, this compound manifested cytoprotective effects, rendering the two-dimensional efficacious beta-caryophyllene to be a clinically safe and potentially useful agent.|
|CBC||anti-inflamatory in vitro,mice||Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene||Jun 1980|
|CBC was tested in vivo using the rat paw edema test and in vitro using the erythrocyte membrane stabilization assay. CBC was as effective as phenylbutazone (PBZ) at equivalent doses.|
|CBC||anti-inflamatory in mice||Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.||Jun 2012|
|CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1.|
|CBC||anti-inflamatory in vitro||The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis||May 2013|
|Cannabichromene exerts anti-inflammatory actions in activated macrophages - with tonic CB1 cannabinoid signalling being negatively coupled to this effect - and ameliorates experimental murine colitis.|
|CBD||anti-inflamatory,skin cancer in vitro||Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury||Jun 2019|
|Down-regulation of genes involved in wound healing and skin inflammation was at least in part due to the presence of cannabidiol. Our findings provide new insights into the potential effect of Cannabisextracts against inflammation-based skin diseases.|