|Sativex||diabetes,neuropathy in humans via placebo trial (n=30)||Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex) in painful diabetic neuropathy: depression is a major confounding factor.||Oct 2009|
|Neutral There was significant improvement in pain scores in both groups, but mean change between groups was not significant. There were no significant differences in secondary outcome measures. Patients with depression had significantly greater baseline pain scores that improved regardless of intervention.|
|cannabis||diabetes in humans via survey (n=10896)||Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III||Feb 2012|
|Positive Marijuana users had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of DM compared to non-marijuana users (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.55; p<0.0001).|
|cannabis||diabetes in humans via survey||Cannabis Smoking and Diabetes Mellitus: Results from Meta-Analysis with Eight Independent Replication Samples||Jun 2016|
|Positive Recently active cannabis smoking and diabetes are inversely associated. The meta-analytic summary odds ratio is 0.7 (95% CI = 0.6, 0.8).|
|THC||diabetes,neuropathy in rats||Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.||Dec 2009|
|These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor.|
|Limonene||diabetes,vasorelaxant in rats||Dietary d-limonene alleviates insulin resistance and oxidative stress-induced liver injury in high-fat diet and L-NAME-treated rats.||Feb 2012|
Ingestion Method: oral|
Dietary supplementation with d-limonene reversed the HFD and L-NAME-induced changes and restored pathological alteration of liver and pancreas.
|cannabis||diabetes in humans via survey (n=4657)||The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults.||Jul 2013|
|Positive In multivariable adjusted models, current marijuana use was associated with 16% lower fasting insulin levels (95% confidence interval [CI], -26, -6) and 17% lower HOMA-IR (95% CI, -27, -6). We found significant associations between marijuana use and smaller waist circumferences. Among current users, we found no significant dose-response.|
|Limonene||cholesterol,diabetes in mice||Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.||Sept 2013|
|Our data suggest that the intake of d-limonene may benefit patients with dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia and is a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating metabolic disorders.|
|Geraniol||diabetes,neuropathy in rats via experiment||Protective effects of geraniol (a monoterpene) in a diabetic neuropathy rat model: Attenuation of behavioral impairments and biochemical perturbations||Sept 2014|
Ingestion Method: 100 mg/kg bw/day|
From our data, we hypothesize that GE may be a promising therapeutic candidate in the management of DN in humans.
|Caryophyllene||diabetes in rats||Beta-Caryophyllene, a natural sesquiterpene, modulates carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.||Oct 2014|
Ingestion Method: 200 mg/kg|
BCP at a dose of 200mg/kg b.w. exerted significant antidiabetic effects than other two doses (100 and 400mg/kg b.w.). We conclude that administration of BCP has beneficial effects in glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats.
|cannabis||obesity,diabetes in humans via survey (n=786)||Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the Inuit population.||Feb 2015|
|Positive Cannabis use was highly prevalent in the study population (57.4%) and was statistically associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), lower % fat mass (P < 0.001), lower fasting insulin (P = 0.04), and lower HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), after adjusting for numerous confounding variables. Further adjustment for BMI rendered fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differences statistically nonsignificant between past-year cannabis users and nonusers. Mediation analysis showed that the effect of cannabis use on insulin resistance was indirect, through BMI.|
|Cymene||obesity,diabetes in mice (n=48)||Cymene and Metformin treatment effect on biochemical parameters of male NMRI mice fed with high fat diet.||June 2015|
|Non-fasting glucose serum levels, ALT, and ALP of E2 and E3 decreased significantly compared to HFD control group.|
|CBD||diabetes in mice via placebo trial||Experimental cannabidiol treatment reduces early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes.||2016|
Ingestion Method: 5 mg/kg CBD|
Positive CBD-treated NOD mice developed T1D later and showed significantly reduced leukocyte activation and increased FCD in the pancreatic microcirculation.
|Geraniol||diabetes in rats||Geraniol, a natural monoterpene, ameliorates hyperglycemia by attenuating the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.||Dec 2017|
Ingestion Method: 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.|
The present findings suggest that geraniol can potentially ameliorate key enzymes of glucose metabolism in experimental diabetes even though clinical studies used to evaluate this possibility are warranted.
|Limonene||anti-oxidant,cancer,diabetes,anti-viral via review||Limonene: Aroma of innovation in health and disease.||Mar 2018|
|The therapeutic effects of limonene have been extensively studied, proving anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic, antiviral, and gastroprotective effects, among other beneficial effects in health.|
|Caryophyllene||diabetes,pain,depression in mice via experiment||Beta-Caryophyllene, a Natural Sesquiterpene, Attenuates Neuropathic Pain and Depressive-Like Behavior in Experimental Diabetic Mice||Mar 2019|
Ingestion Method: oral 10 mg/kg/60 ?L|
Our data using an orally chronic BCP administration in the STZ challenged mice to suggest that glycemia, diabetes-related NP, and depressive-like behavior could be prevented/reduced by dietary BCP.
|O-1602,Abn-CBD||diabetes in mice via experiment||G-protein coupled receptor 55 agonists increase insulin secretion through inositol trisphosphate-mediated calcium release in pancreatic beta--cells||Apr 2019|
Action Pathway: GPR55|
Our results demonstrated that O-1602 and Abn-CBD increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, which was abolished by a PLC inhibitor, U73122.
|cannabinoids||diabetes,ra,ms via review||Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases: where do we stand?||May 2019|
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2|
Thus, in this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which CBRs interact with the autoimmune environment and the potential to suppress the development and activation of autoreactive cells. Finally, we highlight how the modulation of CB1R and CB2R is advantageous in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
|cannabis||diabetes in humans via review (n=129,509)||Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese U.S. adults||Jun 2019|
|Positive Marijuana use is associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in obese but not in non-obese adults, even at low frequency of < 4 uses per month. Former consumers with high lifetime use had a significant lower insulin levels which persists, independent of the duration of time since last use.|
|cannabinoids||liver,diabetes via review||The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials||Jul 2013|
|There is accumulating evidence on the role CB1 as a key mediator of insulin resistance and liver lipogenesis in both animals and humans. On the other hand, CB2 receptors have been shown to promote inflammation with anti-fibrogenic properties. The pharmacological modulation of the EC system activity for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are promising yet premature.|
|Rimonabant||weight loss,diabetes in humans via placebo trial (n=1047)||Efficacy and tolerability of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled study.||Nov 2006|
Ingestion Method: 5, 25mg/day|
Positive These data indicate that 20 mg/day rimonabant, in combination with diet and exercise, can produce a clinically meaningful reduction in bodyweight and improve HbA1c and a number of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin or sulphonylureas.
|Rimonabant||diabetes in humans via placebo trial (n=368)||Effect of rimonabant on glycemic control in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: the ARPEGGIO trial.||Mar 2010|
|Positive Rimonabant significantly reduced baseline A1C versus placebo (-0.89 vs. -0.24%; P < 0.0001), and significantly greater improvements were observed in cardiometabolic risk factors. More rimonabant patients achieved >10% reduction in mean total daily insulin dose versus placebo (P = 0.0012), and fewer required rescue medication (P < 0.0001). Hypoglycemia, nausea, dizziness, anxiety, and depression were more frequent with rimonabant.|
|THCV||diabetes in mice||The cannabinoid delta-(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity.||May 2013|
|THCV did not significantly affect food intake or body weight gain in any of the studies, but produced an early and transient increase in energy expenditure. It dose-dependently reduced glucose intolerance in ob/ob mice and improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity in DIO mice, without consistently affecting plasma lipids. THCV also restored insulin signalling in insulin-resistant hepatocytes and myotubes.|
|AM251||diabetes in mice||Antidiabetic effects of sub-chronic administration of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonist, AM251, in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice.||Feb 2008|
Ingestion Method: 6 mg/kg|
These data indicate that sub-chronic antagonism of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor by daily treatment with AM251 counters aspects of the hyperphagia-related impairment of ob/ob mouse metabolism. Such effects seem predominantly mediated by restriction of energy intake.