Cannabis and Limonene
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and D-Limonene (Limonene) (a monoterpene)

Boiling/Vape Point: 176℃
Flavors: Citrus
Also in: Citrus Rinds, Juniper, Peppermint
Limonene is found in the peels and oils of many citrus fruits, including lemon, orange, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit. [Wikipedia]
Click on a study title below to open a new tab with full article, or click on a compound to see it's full list of research.
Compounds Topics Title Date
Limonene anti-inflamatory,asthma in mice via experiment Differential Effects of Limonene on Inflammation via Activation of A2A and A2B Adenosine Receptors in Asthma Apr 2019
Action Pathway: A2AAR,A2BAR
We have shown that limonene induces bronchodilation and lowers inflammation via A2A receptor activation (FASEB J April 2017 31:820.1) in a mouse model of asthma.
Limonene anti-bacterial in vitro Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes Feb 2013
The study of the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+)-limonene showed that the lethality of this compound was higher at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH
Limonene pain,anti-inflamatory in mice Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Jun 1999
The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.
Limonene cancer,stomach cancer in vitro [D-limonene induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells]. July 2003
D-limonene could induce the formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of bcl-2 protein decreased and p53 protein increased in BGC-823 cells treated with D-limonene, compared with the control cells.
Myrcene,Limonene anti-inflamatory in mice Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species. Aug 2003
The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene.
Limonene safety in humans D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications. Sept 2007
Subsequent studies have determined how these tumors occur and established that d-limonene does not pose a mutagenic, carcinogenic, or nephrotoxic risk to humans. In humans, d-limonene has demonstrated low toxicity after single and repeated dosing for up to one year.
Limonene diabetes,vasorelaxant in rats Dietary d-limonene alleviates insulin resistance and oxidative stress-induced liver injury in high-fat diet and L-NAME-treated rats. Feb 2012
Ingestion Method: oral
Dietary supplementation with d-limonene reversed the HFD and L-NAME-induced changes and restored pathological alteration of liver and pancreas.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,cancer in mice D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis. Aug 2012
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/kg
We found that D-limonene (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) treatments to the mouse skin significantly reduced the TPA-induced (a) edema and hyperplasia (p < 0.001); (b) expression of cyclooxygenase-2; (c) ornithine decarboxylase activity (p < 0.001); and (d) [(3)H] thymidine incorporation into DNA (p < 0.001)
Limonene anxiety in mice via experiment Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants Jan 2013
Ingestion Method: inhaled 1%
These data suggest possible connections between the volatility of (+)-limonene and its anxiolytic-like effect on the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The data indicate that (+)-limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an antianxiety agent.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,colon in rats via experiment Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans. July 2013
Ingestion Method: 10mg/kg oral
In conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation.
Limonene cholesterol,diabetes in mice Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Sept 2013
Our data suggest that the intake of d-limonene may benefit patients with dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia and is a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating metabolic disorders.
Limonene stress in mice Anti-stress effects of d-limonene and its metabolite perillyl alcohol Apr 2014
In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, a beneficial role as an anti-stress substance could thus be claimed for d-limonene used as a dietary supplement.
Limonene,Phellandrene pain,depression in rats via experiment Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, Alpha-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model. July 2015
Together, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and alpha--phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive,
Limonene anti-oxidant,anti-inflamatory,intenstine in rats D-limonene exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in an ulcerative colitis rat model via regulation of iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and ERK signaling pathways. Apr 2017
Action Pathway: iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta-
In conclusion, D-limonene reduced MMP-2 and -9 mRNA expression levels via regulation of the iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta- and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in a UC rat model, indicating its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Limonene pain in mice via experiment D-limonene exhibits superior antihyperalgesic effects in a Beta-cyclodextrin-complexed form in chronic musculoskeletal pain reducing Fos protein expression on spinal cord in mice. Sept 2007
After induction of hyperalgesia, the oral administration of LIM-beta-CD (50mg/kg) significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold compared to uncomplexed limonene. Fos immunofluorescence showed that both compounds significantly decreased the number of Fos-positive cells in the dorsal horn. In nociceptive tests, FLU was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of LIM-beta-CD
Limonene anti-oxidant,cancer,diabetes,anti-viral via review Limonene: Aroma of innovation in health and disease. Mar 2018
The therapeutic effects of limonene have been extensively studied, proving anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic, antiviral, and gastroprotective effects, among other beneficial effects in health.
Limonene cholesterol,anti-oxidant in rabbits via experiment Antioxidative and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lemon Essential Oil in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits. Mar 2018
Ingestion Method: lemon essential oil (LEO)
In conclusion, LEO had beneficial effects on hypercholesterolemia due to its antioxidative and cholesterol lowering effects.
Linalool,Limonene cardiovascular via review The use of terpenes and derivatives as a new perspective for cardiovascular disease treatment: a patent review (2008-2018). Dec 2018
Several studies have shown the application of terpenes, such as carvacrol, linalool, and limonene in many pharmaceutical and medicinal fields, including cardiovascular disorders, the leading cause of death worldwide.
Limonene anti-oxidant in vitro via experiment Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Citrus aurantium L zest against some pathogenic microorganisms. Jan 2019
Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the oil (inhibition zones being between 9 and 12.5 mm) and the minimum inhibitory concentration was more than 600 ppm; Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive. The obtained essential oil displayed promising results for its application as a biopreservative agent.
Limonene boost immune in mice via experiment Modulation of immune responses in mice by d-limonene. 1987
Mice treated with d-limonene prior to KLH priming produced significant increased antibody responses.
Limonene cancer in rats via article Chemoprevention and therapy of cancer by d-limonene 1994
The naturally occurring monoterpene d-limonene has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against many rodent solid tumor types. The chemopreventive activity of limonene during initiation can be attributed to the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes, with resulting carcinogen detoxification.