|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,asthma in mice via experiment||Differential Effects of Limonene on Inflammation via Activation of A2A and A2B Adenosine Receptors in Asthma||Apr 2019|
Action Pathway: A2AAR,A2BAR|
We have shown that limonene induces bronchodilation and lowers inflammation via A2A receptor activation (FASEB J April 2017 31:820.1) in a mouse model of asthma.
|Limonene||anti-bacterial in vitro||Mechanism of Bacterial Inactivation by (+)-Limonene and Its Potential Use in Food Preservation Combined Processes||Feb 2013|
|The study of the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+)-limonene showed that the lethality of this compound was higher at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH|
|Limonene||pain,anti-inflamatory in mice||Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.||Jun 1999|
|The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.|
|Limonene||cancer,stomach cancer in vitro||[D-limonene induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells].||July 2003|
|D-limonene could induce the formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of bcl-2 protein decreased and p53 protein increased in BGC-823 cells treated with D-limonene, compared with the control cells.|
|Myrcene,Limonene||anti-inflamatory in mice||Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species.||Aug 2003|
|The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene.|
|Limonene||safety in humans||D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications.||Sept 2007|
|Subsequent studies have determined how these tumors occur and established that d-limonene does not pose a mutagenic, carcinogenic, or nephrotoxic risk to humans. In humans, d-limonene has demonstrated low toxicity after single and repeated dosing for up to one year.|
|Limonene||diabetes,vasorelaxant in rats||Dietary d-limonene alleviates insulin resistance and oxidative stress-induced liver injury in high-fat diet and L-NAME-treated rats.||Feb 2012|
Ingestion Method: oral|
Dietary supplementation with d-limonene reversed the HFD and L-NAME-induced changes and restored pathological alteration of liver and pancreas.
|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,cancer in mice||D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis.||Aug 2012|
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/kg|
We found that D-limonene (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) treatments to the mouse skin significantly reduced the TPA-induced (a) edema and hyperplasia (p < 0.001); (b) expression of cyclooxygenase-2; (c) ornithine decarboxylase activity (p < 0.001); and (d) [(3)H] thymidine incorporation into DNA (p < 0.001)
|Limonene||anxiety in mice via experiment||Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants||Jan 2013|
Ingestion Method: inhaled 1%|
These data suggest possible connections between the volatility of (+)-limonene and its anxiolytic-like effect on the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The data indicate that (+)-limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an antianxiety agent.
|Limonene||anti-inflamatory,colon in rats via experiment||Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans.||July 2013|
Ingestion Method: 10mg/kg oral|
In conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation.
|Limonene||cholesterol,diabetes in mice||Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.||Sept 2013|
|Our data suggest that the intake of d-limonene may benefit patients with dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia and is a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating metabolic disorders.|
|Limonene||stress in mice||Anti-stress effects of d-limonene and its metabolite perillyl alcohol||Apr 2014|
|In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, a beneficial role as an anti-stress substance could thus be claimed for d-limonene used as a dietary supplement.|
|Limonene,Phellandrene||pain,depression in rats via experiment||Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, Alpha-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model.||July 2015|
|Together, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and alpha--phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive,|
|Limonene||anti-oxidant,anti-inflamatory,intenstine in rats||D-limonene exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in an ulcerative colitis rat model via regulation of iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and ERK signaling pathways.||Apr 2017|
Action Pathway: iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta-|
In conclusion, D-limonene reduced MMP-2 and -9 mRNA expression levels via regulation of the iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta- and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in a UC rat model, indicating its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
|Limonene||pain in mice via experiment||D-limonene exhibits superior antihyperalgesic effects in a Beta-cyclodextrin-complexed form in chronic musculoskeletal pain reducing Fos protein expression on spinal cord in mice.||Sept 2007|
|After induction of hyperalgesia, the oral administration of LIM-beta-CD (50mg/kg) significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold compared to uncomplexed limonene. Fos immunofluorescence showed that both compounds significantly decreased the number of Fos-positive cells in the dorsal horn. In nociceptive tests, FLU was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of LIM-beta-CD|
|Limonene||anti-oxidant,cancer,diabetes,anti-viral via review||Limonene: Aroma of innovation in health and disease.||Mar 2018|
|The therapeutic effects of limonene have been extensively studied, proving anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic, antiviral, and gastroprotective effects, among other beneficial effects in health.|
|Limonene||cholesterol,anti-oxidant in rabbits via experiment||Antioxidative and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lemon Essential Oil in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits.||Mar 2018|
Ingestion Method: lemon essential oil (LEO)|
In conclusion, LEO had beneficial effects on hypercholesterolemia due to its antioxidative and cholesterol lowering effects.
|Linalool,Limonene||cardiovascular via review||The use of terpenes and derivatives as a new perspective for cardiovascular disease treatment: a patent review (2008-2018).||Dec 2018|
|Several studies have shown the application of terpenes, such as carvacrol, linalool, and limonene in many pharmaceutical and medicinal fields, including cardiovascular disorders, the leading cause of death worldwide.|
|Limonene||anti-oxidant in vitro via experiment||Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Citrus aurantium L zest against some pathogenic microorganisms.||Jan 2019|
|Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the oil (inhibition zones being between 9 and 12.5 mm) and the minimum inhibitory concentration was more than 600 ppm; Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive. The obtained essential oil displayed promising results for its application as a biopreservative agent.|
|Limonene||boost immune in mice via experiment||Modulation of immune responses in mice by d-limonene.||1987|
|Mice treated with d-limonene prior to KLH priming produced significant increased antibody responses.|
|Limonene||cancer in rats via article||Chemoprevention and therapy of cancer by d-limonene||1994|
|The naturally occurring monoterpene d-limonene has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against many rodent solid tumor types. The chemopreventive activity of limonene during initiation can be attributed to the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes, with resulting carcinogen detoxification.|