Cannabis and cannabinoids
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids

Catch-all for cannabinoid subjects and studies
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Compounds Topics Title Date
cannabis,cannabinoids stroke via review Cannabis and Cannabinoid Biology in Stroke Aug 2019
There is no previous or current clinical trials using cannabis or cannabinoids in stroke, but their pleitropic effects on the ischemic penumbra and ceberal vasculature after stroke, combined with excellent tolerability, make them promising candiates for future treatment development.
cannabinoids via article Introduction to Recent Advances in Cannabinoid Research Mar 2019
Currently, interest in Cannabis and cannabinoid research is surging as the many knowledge gaps in basic biology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and clinical efficacy are identified. The purpose of this book is to summarize some leading areas of research in the cannabinoid field where knowledge gaps have been or are being actively addressed. The research described herein spans between basic biological and clinical research
cannabinoids ocd via review The Endocannabinoid System: A New Treatment Target for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder? May 2019
An emerging body of evidence suggests that the ECS plays a role in OCD symptoms and may be a target for the development of novel medications. Further exploration of this topic through well-designed human trials is warranted.
cannabinoids liver via review CB2 receptors as new therapeutic targets for liver diseases Jan 2008
Recent data have unravelled a key role of CB2 receptors during chronic and acute liver injury, including fibrogenesis associated to chronic liver diseases, ischaemia-reperfusion-induced liver injury, and hepatic encephalopathy associated to acute liver failure. This review summarizes the latest advances on the recently identified role of CB2 receptors in the pathophysiology of liver diseases.
cannabis,THC,CBD,THCV,cannabinoids entourage via review The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin Jan 2008
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
It is now well established that delta-9-THC is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor partial agonist and that depending on the expression level and coupling efficiency of these receptors it will either activate them or block their activation by other cannabinoids.
cannabinoids adhd,ptsd in vitro Association of the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) With ADHD and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Jun 2009
These observations require replication, however, they suggest that the CNR1 gene may be a risk factor for ADHD and possibly PTSD, and that this gene warrants further investigation for a role in neuropsychiatric disorders.
cannabinoids cancer,skin cancer via review The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities Jul 2009
Collectively, it seems that the main physiological function of the cutaneous ECS is to constitutively control the proper and well-balanced proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as immune competence and/or tolerance, of skin cells.
cannabinoids cancer in vitro via experiment The Expression Level of CB1 and CB2 Receptors Determines Their Efficacy at Inducing Apoptosis in Astrocytomas Jan 2010
Action Pathway: ERK1/2
Remarkably, cannabinoids applied at high concentration induce apoptosis in all subclones independently of CB1, CB2 and AKT, but still through a mechanism involving ERK1/2.
cannabinoids anti-inflamatory via review Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs Aug 2010
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
This review will focus on the potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T cells or other cellular immune components.
cannabis,cannabinoids cancer,prostate cancer via review The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications Jun 2012
It is our conclusion that it would be of interest to conduct clinical trials involving medicinal cannabis or other cannabinoid agonists, comparing clinical markers such as PSA with controls, especially in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer, whom would not only benefit from the possible anti-androgenic effects of cannabinoids but also from analgesia of bone pain, improving quality of life, while reducing narcotic consumption and preventing opioid dependence.
cannabinoids liver,diabetes via review The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials Jul 2013
There is accumulating evidence on the role CB1 as a key mediator of insulin resistance and liver lipogenesis in both animals and humans. On the other hand, CB2 receptors have been shown to promote inflammation with anti-fibrogenic properties. The pharmacological modulation of the EC system activity for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are promising yet premature.
cannabinoids opioid via review Interactions of the opioid and cannabinoid systems in reward: Insights from knockout studies Feb 2015
Both opioid and cannabinoid receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry. Extending classical pharmacology, research using genetically modified mice has provided important progress in the identification of the specific contribution of each component of these endogenous systems in vivo on reward process.
cannabinoids pain,addiction,obesity via article Cannabinoids: Friend or Foe? Jun 2016
These are interesting time for cannabinoid research and clinical application; much more needs to be done to translate the potential of cannabinoid drugs to medicinal use and to identify the conditions that could benefit from this class of drugs. There is as yet untapped potential in the areas of pain and addiction, obesity, metabolic syndrome and epilepsy
cannabinoids,CBD,THC cancer via article Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids Mar 2016
Action Pathway: VEGF,CB1,CB2
In cancer cells, cannabinoids block the activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) pathway, an inducer of angiogenesis.
cannabinoids autism via review Role of Endocannabinoids on Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevention Jun 2017
The growing number of medical benefits of ES, such as their ability to regulate processes like neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and memory, raise the question of their potential role as a preventive treatment of ASD.
cannabinoids toxicity via article Toxicant Formation in Dabbing: The Terpene Story Sept 2017
Using the same rationale as above for MC emission, one dab of BHO delivers 17 ng of benzene. Represented as a concentration in the draw volume, this value is 15 ? 1.8 ppb.
cannabinoids cancer,pancreatic cancer,lung cancer via review Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Cancer Treatment With Cannabinoids Apr 2018
This study explores the potential of combination approaches employing CBDs with radiotherapy (RT) or smart biomaterials toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy during treatment of pancreatic and lung cancers.
cannabinoids liver via review The Role of Cannabinoids in the Setting of Cirrhosis Jun 2018
The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in liver disease, and cirrhosis specifically, with intriguing possible therapeutic benefits.
cannabinoids gender differences via review The Modulating Role of Sex and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Hormones in Cannabinoid Sensitivity Oct 2018
Although it remains unclear how sex may affect the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use in humans, animal studies strongly suggest that endogenous sex hormones modulate cannabinoid sensitivity.
cannabinoids ibd,colon cancer in vitro Members of the endocannabinoid system are distinctly regulated in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer Feb 2019
There is still a wide gap between preclinical evidence and the role of the ECS in human GI diseases. So far, little evidence exists whether cannabinoids are beneficial in human IBD and CRC, as large clinical trials are still missing.
cannabinoids cancer via review Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation Feb 2019
In vitro and in vivo cancer models show that cannabinoids can effectively modulate tumor growth, however, the antitumor effects appear to be largely dependent on cancer type and drug dose/concentration. Understanding how cannabinoids are able to regulate essential cellular processes involved in tumorigenesis, such as progression through the cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death, as well as the interactions between cannabinoids and the immune system, are crucial for improving existing and developing new therapeutic approaches for cancer patients.
CBD,cannabinoids stroke via review The endocannabinoid system and stroke: A focused review Jan 2019
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Development of novel neuroprotectants is of paramount importance. This review seeks to summarize the recent evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid signaling system in stroke pathophysiology, as well as the evidence from preclinical studies regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids as neuroprotective therapies in the treatment of stroke.
cannabinoids liver via review Endocannabinoid System in Hepatic Glucose Metabolism, Fatty Liver Disease, and Cirrhosis. May 2019
The ECS system is highly upregulated during chronic liver disease and a growing number of studies suggest a mechanistic and therapeutic impact of ECS on the development of liver fibrosis, especially putting its receptors into focus.
cannabinoids chemotherapy,nausea via review Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. Jun 2001
Cannabinoids were more effective antiemetics than prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, thiethylperazine, haloperidol, domperidone, or alizapride: relative risk 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.62), number needed to treat 6 for complete control of nausea; 1.28 (1.08 to 1.51), NNT 8 for complete control of vomiting.
cannabinoids liver in vitro via experiment Antifibrogenic role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the liver. Mar 2005
Action Pathway: CB2
These data constitute the first demonstration that CB2 receptors are highly up-regulated in the cirrhotic liver, predominantly in hepatic fibrogenic cells. Moreover, this study also highlights the antifibrogenic role of CB2 receptors during chronic liver injury.
cannabinoids cancer,leukemia in vitro The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Jul 2006
Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive. results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis via a ceramide-dependent stimulation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway.
cannabinoids cancer,pancreatic cancer in vitro Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes. Jul 2006
Action Pathway: p8
Studies conducted with MiaPaCa2 and Panc1 cell lines showed that cannabinoid administration (a) induced apoptosis, (b) increased ceramide levels, and (c) up-regulated mRNA levels of the stress protein p8.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma in vitro Cannabinoid receptors in human astroglial tumors. Aug 2006
We conclude that cannabinoid therapy of human gliomas targets not only receptors on tumor, but also on other cell types. Therefore, complex and potential side-effects should be considered carefully.
cannabinoids cancer,skin cancer in mice Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. Dec 2006
Here, we evaluated the efficacy of cannabinoid receptor agonists, a new family of potential antitumoral compounds, at skin melanoma. Human melanomas and melanoma cell lines express CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Activation of these receptors decreased growth, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, and increased apoptosis, of melanomas in mice.
cannabinoids liver via review The endocannabinoid system and liver diseases. May 2008
At present, the CB(1) antagonists represent the most attractive pharmaceutical tool to resolve fat accumulation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and to treat patients with cirrhosis, as they may slow the progression of fibrosis and attenuate the cardiovascular alterations associated with the advanced stage of the disease.
cannabinoids cancer,colon cancer in vitro Estrogenic induction of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in human colon cancer cell lines. Jan 2008
The CB1 receptor can be considered an estrogen-responsive gene in DLD-1, HT-29 and SW620 cells. Up-regulation of CB1 expression by 17beta-estradiol is a further mechanism of estrogens to control colon cancer proliferation.
cannabinoids cancer,colon cancer in vitro Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Dec 2008
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF-alpha acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma in vitro Predominant CB2 receptor expression in endothelial cells of glioblastoma in humans. Jun 2009
Action Pathway: CB2
In glioblastoma endothelial cells, CB1 and CB2 receptors were present in about 38% and 54% of the cells respectively. In comparison to CB1, an elevated CB2 receptor expression was identified in glioblastoma.
cannabinoids metabolism in mice Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions. Mar 2011
In n-3-deficient mice, presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs) normally responding to endocannabinoids were uncoupled from their effector G(i/o) proteins.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma via review Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas. Jan 2014
Positive  In all experimental studies included, cannabinoids exerted antitumoral activity in vitro and/or antitumoral evidence in vivo in several models of tumor cells and tumors.
cannabinoids pain,arthritis via review Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain. Feb 2014
Increasing evidence from preclinical studies supports the interest of the endocannabinoid system as an emerging therapeutic target for osteoarthritis pain. Indeed, pharmacological studies have shown the anti-nociceptive effects of cannabinoids in different rodent models of osteoarthritis, and compelling evidence suggests an active participation of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of this disease.
cannabinoids anxiety,stress in rats via review Endocannabinoids and striatal function: implications for addiction-related behaviours. Feb 2015
In this article we integrate and discuss recent findings in rodents showing selective pharmacological modulation of impulsivity and anxiety by cannabinoid agents. We highlight the potential of selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism, directed at fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, to reduce anxiety and stress responses, and discuss novel mechanisms underlying the modulation of the endocannabinoid system, including the attenuation of impulsivity, anxiety, and drug reward by selective CB2 receptor agonists.
cannabinoids pain,spasticity,hiv,sedative in humans via review Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Jun 2015
Positive  Most trials showed improvement in symptoms associated with cannabinoids but these associations did not reach statistical significance in all trials. Compared with placebo, cannabinoids were associated with a greater average number of patients showing a complete nausea and vomiting response (47% vs 20%; odds ratio [OR], 3.82 [95% CI, 1.55-9.42]; 3 trials), reduction in pain (37% vs 31%; OR, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.99-2.00]; 8 trials), a greater average reduction in numerical rating scale pain assessment
cannabinoids chemotherapy,nausea via review Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Nov 2015
Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, methodological limitations of the trials limit our conclusions and further research reflecting current chemotherapy regimens and newer anti-emetic drugs is likely to modify these conclusions.
cannabinoids cancer,renal cell carcinoma,kidney cancer via review The Therapeutic Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) for Cancer and their Development: From Nature to Laboratory. Jan 2016
Despite recent developments in molecular biology, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the human kidney and their role in kidney cancer. To address this gap, we explore and demonstrate the role of the endocannabinoid system in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this brief overview, we elucidate the therapeutic aspects of the endocannabinoid system for various cancers and explain how this system can be used for treating kidney cancer.
cannabinoids endosystem via review Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target. Apr 2016
Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Tourette's syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.
cannabinoids via review Psychoactive constituents of cannabis and their clinical implications: a systematic review. 2018 Apr
This systematic review aims to summarize current evidence on which naturally present cannabinoids contribute to cannabis psychoactivity, considering their reported concentrations and pharmacodynamics in humans
cannabinoids cancer via review A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids. Nov 2017
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) have been isolated and characterized from mammalian cells. Through cannabinoid receptor and non-receptor signaling pathways, cannabinoids show specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells, while protecting healthy tissue from apoptosis.
cannabinoids cancer via review Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs. Nov 2017
Accordingly, cannabinoid compounds have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and spreading in numerous rodent models. The underlying mechanisms include induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells as well as inhibition of tumor cell invasion and angiogenic features of endothelial cells.
cannabinoids ibd in rats Cannabinoid-induced relief of hypermotility in a rat model of the irritable bowel syndrome. May 2019
Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists may be useful in treating intestinal motility disorders.
cannabinoids pain via review Effects of cannabinoid administration for pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. May 2019
Meta-regression revealed that cannabinoids, beta- = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.62, -0.24], p < .05, synthetic cannabinoids, beta- = -0.39, 95% CI [-0.65, -0.14], p < .05, and sample size, beta- = 0.01, 95% CI [0.00, 0.01], p < .05, were associated with marked pain reduction.
cannabinoids parkinsons in humans via review Evidence for the use of cannabinoids in Parkinson's disease. May 2019
There is increasing understanding of the endocannabinoid system, and the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in basal ganglia structures might suggest potential benefit on parkinsonian symptoms. Concerning clinical research, only one of to date four conducted randomized placebo-controlled trials showed an effect on motor symptoms with alleviation of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. There are a growing number of uncontrolled trials and case reports that suggest beneficial effects of cannabinoids in PD patients.
cannabinoids alzheimers in mice CB2 Cannabinoid receptor agonist ameliorates novel object recognition but not spatial memory in transgenic APP/PS1 mice May 2019
Action Pathway: CB2
Our results demonstrated that CB2R activation exerts a beneficial role in novel object recognition ability concomitant with region-specific regulation in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and dendritic complexity in AD-model mice.
cannabinoids diabetes,ra,ms via review Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases: where do we stand? May 2019
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Thus, in this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which CBRs interact with the autoimmune environment and the potential to suppress the development and activation of autoreactive cells. Finally, we highlight how the modulation of CB1R and CB2R is advantageous in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
cannabinoids diabetes via review Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications Aug 2019
Action Pathway: CB2
The present review addresses, potential role of CB2 receptor activation in management of diabetes and its complications. It also includes the role of CB2 receptors as an anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory for the treatment of DM and its complications.
cannabinoids parkinsons via review The therapeutic role of cannabinoid receptors and its agonists or antagonists in Parkinson's disease Aug 2019
CB1 and CB2 receptors participate in multiple pathogenesis of PD. The agonists or antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors are promising in the treatment of PD.
cannabinoids cultivation via experiment LED lighting affects the composition and biological activity of Cannabis sativa secondary metabolites Jun 2019
Flowering under LEDs leads to higher accumulation of CBGA.
cannabinoids ptsd via review The Effectiveness of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review. Sep 2019
Most studies to date are small and of low quality, with significant limitations to the study designs precluding any clinical recommendations about its use in routine clinical practice. Evidence that cannabinoids may help reduce global PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbances, and nightmares indicates that future well-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials are highly warranted