Cannabis and cannabis
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and cannabis

Catch-all for medical cannabis topics and studies
Click on a study title below to open a new tab with full article, or click on a compound to see it's full list of research.
Compounds Topics Title Date
cannabis adhd in humans via case study (n=1) Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD 2008
The present case report suggests that individuals suffering from ADHD, a dysfunction with a symptomatic change in activity levels, may - in some cases - benefit from cannabis treatment in that it appears to regulate activation to a level which may be considered optimum for performance.
cannabis entourage,cultivation via review Cannabidiol and Contributions of Major Hemp Phytocompounds to the Entourage Effect; Possible Mechanisms May 2019
In this article, selected phytocompounds of hemp (Cannabis) are briefly discussed as well as their putative targets, in order to give an overview on the extremely complex interaction commonly called as entourage effect; lacking more systematic studies particularly in man, a number of mechanisms must remain assumptions. It is beyond the scope of this article to summarise all experimental work that has been published on specific ligands, receptors and ion channels. Primacy is given to most recent articles and reviews rather than to original papers.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via article Gene Networks Underlying Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Accumulation in Cannabis May 2019
In addition to cloning variants of previously characterized genes, specifically CsTPS14CT ((-)-limonene synthase) and CsTPS15CT (beta--myrcene synthase) we functionally evaluated genes that encode enzymes with activities not previously described in cannabis, namely CsTPS18VF and CsTPS19BL (nerolidol/linalool synthases); CsTPS16CC (germacrene B synthase); and CsTPS20CT (hedycaryol synthase). This study lays the groundwork for developing a better understanding of the complex chemistry and biochemistry underlying resin accumulation across commercial cannabis strains.
cannabis adolescent use via review The Harm of Cannabis in Adolescents Jun 2019
Negative  The use of cannabis in adolescents is associated with poor physical health status, poor performance at school, decreased academic achievement and an increase in the likelihood for dropout.
cannabis driving via review Cannabis and alcohol in road traffic: an overview Jul 2019
The drivers impaired by cannabis are often aware of their lack of abilities and employe compensational practices.
cannabis ms in humans via article In the cloud of cannabis: Caring for people with multiple sclerosis who use cannabis for symptom control 2019
Research to-date suggests a large proportion of people living with MS are using cannabis as a way to self-manage symptoms, and, if not, believe that there are potential benefits in using this drug
cannabis pelvic pain,chronic pain via survey (n=89/114) Cannabis for Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Survey of Prevalence and Effectiveness [21H] May 2019
Positive  The users who reported using cannabis for CPP reported an average reduction in pain by 5.9 points (P<.0001) and those who did not report using cannabis for CPP also reported a reduction in pain by 2.9 points (P=.0012). 71/82 (86.6%) respondents would consider being in a clinical trial of medical cannabis to treat CPP.
cannabis pregnancy in humans via study (n=661617) Association Between Self-reported Prenatal Cannabis Use and Maternal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Outcomes Jun 2019
Negative  Reported cannabis use in pregnancy was associated with significant increases in the rate of preterm birth following adjustment for confounding.
cannabis pregnancy via review Is Increasing Frequency of Marijuana Use Among Women of Reproductive Age a Cause for Alarm? Jul 2019
Negative  In short, the observed increase is likely to be representative of a true increase in marijuana use and frequency of use among reproductive-aged women over the past decade. There are data indicating that adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm birth, and abnormal neurologic development may be affected by frequency of use. With this knowledge, the findings in the study by Young-Wolff and colleagues are cause for alarm.
cannabis safety in humans via study (n=16430) Total and differential white blood cell count in cannabis users: results from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2016 Jul 2019
Negative  A modest association between heavy cannabis use and WBC count was detected. Additional research is needed to understand the immune related effects of different modes of cannabis use and to elucidate the role of proinflammatory chemicals generated from smoking cannabis.
cannabis,Dronabinol gastroparesis via survey (n=197) Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Gastroparesis and Related Disorders Mar 2019
A third of patients with Gp symptoms actively use cannabinoids for their chronic symptoms. Most of these patients perceive improvement in their symptoms with cannabinoids.
cannabis pain,chronic pain in humans via review Cannabinoids, cannabis, and cannabis-based medicine for pain management Apr 2019
Cannabinoid, cannabis, and cannabis-based medicines (CBMs) are thought to reduce pain, but a proliferation of different products has led to variability in trials, creating a challenge when determining the assessment of efficacy in systematic reviews
cannabis pain,anxiety,sedative,migraine in humans via survey (n=1513) Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep Apr 2019
Positive  In conclusion, a majority of patients reported using less opioids as well as fewer medications to treat anxiety, migraines, and sleep after initiating MC. A smaller portion used less antidepressants or alcohol.
cannabis hyperemesis in humans via review (n=18) Efficacy of Capsaicin for the Treatment of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Systematic Review May 2019
Current data for capsaicin efficacy in CHS is of low methodological quality. However, the limited data on alternative antiemetic therapies and capsaicins favorable risk-benefit profile make it a reasonable adjunctive treatment option.
cannabis driving via model Marijuana legalization and road safety: a panel study of US States May 2019
First, while treating both the state and the year as fixed effects, the resulting panel regression model estimates that the legalization of medical or recreational marijuana is not a predictor of the number of fatalities per 100,000 vehicle-miles traveled. Second, due to limitations in the regression model, a difference-in-difference analysis was conducted over the same period and found no relationship between legalization of medical marijuana and the number of fatalities per 100,000 vehicle-miles traveled. These findings suggest that concerns of policy makers and the public that legalizing marijuana will worsen road safety are not ungrounded at this time.
cannabis adolescent use,depression via review Effects of Adolescent Cannabis Use on Motivation and Depression: a Systematic Review Aug 2019
Heavy adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer educational outcomes and increased levels of depressive symptoms. The role of depression in how cannabis may affect motivation, broadly, is not yet clear, as most studies have not examined associations among all three constructs.
cannabis veterinary in pets via review Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine: Cannabinoid Therapies for Animals May 2019
The use of cannabis for animal species is an area of growing interest, largely due to the therapeutic benefits being observed for humans and animals in the era of cannabis legalization. The close relationship humans have with their pets and other veterinary species has led to a renewed interest in the possibility and promise of cannabis to treat similar health issues in the animal community.
cannabis migraine,headache,pain in humans via survey (n=316) Medical Cannabis for Chronic Migraine: A Retrospective Review May 2019
Positive  On NYS MC, 88.3% (279) patients reported improvement in their headache profile with an average MC exposure of 22.4?17.5 weeks. The average monthly migraine frequency change was significant with 42.1% decrease (24.9?7.16 to 16.1?10.7, p<0.0001)
cannabis ms,spasticity in humans via survey (n=29) Cannabis Use in People with Multiple Sclerosis and Self-Reported Spasticity Apr 2019
Positive  All subjects reported cannabis being somewhat or very helpful for pain and 78% (7/9) reported similar benefit for spasticity.
cannabis pregnancy in humans via study (n=1206) Marijuana use in young mothers and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study Jul 2019
Negative  In a population of young women with nearly universal biologic sampling, marijuana exposure was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
cannabis ptsd in humans via study (n=545) Interactive effects of PTSD and substance use on suicidal ideation and behavior in military personnel: Increased risk from marijuana use Sep 2019
The interaction between PTSD symptoms and marijuana use significantly predicted increased PTSD symptoms over time and suicidal behavior. At high, but not low levels of PTSD symptoms, more days using marijuana predicted increased PTSD symptoms over time and the likelihood of suicidal behavior.
cannabis driving in humans via analysis (n=3005) Cannabis use as a risk factor for causing motor vehicle crashes: a prospective study May 2019
Positive  In this sample of non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in British Columbia, Canada, there was no evidence of increased crash risk in drivers with THC<5ng/mL and a statistically non-significant increased risk of crash responsibility (OR=1.74) in drivers with THC>=5ng/mL.
In our preferred econometric specification, we estimate that RMLs reduce annual opioid mortality in the range of 20%-35%, with particularly pronounced effects for synthetic opioids.
cannabis autism via review Medical cannabis for paediatric developmental-behavioural and psychiatric disorders Apr 2018
In summary, MC has potential as a therapeutic option in the management of paediatric mental health symptoms; however, the evidence to support its use for these patients is not yet in. There is an urgent need to conduct well-designed trials of pharmaceutical-grade MC products in children with behavioural and psychiatric disorders. In the meantime, paediatricians should counsel caution in relation to MC treatment for these indications.
cannabis,cannabinoids stroke via review Cannabis and Cannabinoid Biology in Stroke Aug 2019
There is no previous or current clinical trials using cannabis or cannabinoids in stroke, but their pleitropic effects on the ischemic penumbra and ceberal vasculature after stroke, combined with excellent tolerability, make them promising candiates for future treatment development.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via article Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: Implications for a budding industry May 2018
Samples were examined for genetic similarity within strains, and also a possible genetic distinction between Sativa, Indica, or Hybrid types. The analyses revealed genetic inconsistencies within strains. Additionally, although there was strong statistical support dividing the samples into two genetic groups, the groups did not correspond to commonly reported Sativa/Hybrid/Indica types.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via chemotaxonomy Variations in Terpene Profiles of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa L 2011
Although Hillig (2004) stated that differences on terpenoids in Cannabis are of limited use for taxonomic discrimination at the species level, with sesquiterpenes generally more useful than monoterpenes, we found that several monoterpenes markers can be powerful tools for discerning between mostly sativa and mostly indica biotypes
cannabis liver in humans via study (n=9000) Reduced Incidence and Better Liver Disease Outcomes among Chronic HCV Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis May 2018
Our study revealed that cannabis users (CUs) had decreased prevalence of liver cirrhosis (aPRR: 0.81[0.72-0.91]), unfavorable discharge disposition (0.87[0.78-0.96]), and lower total health care cost ($39,642[36,220-43,387] versus $45,566[$42,244-$49,150]), compared to noncannabis users (NCUs).
cannabis placebo via review The Intricate Influence of the Placebo Effect on Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2018
Given the recent insight that the endocannabinoid system is mediating, at least in part, a placebo effect, psychoactive cannabis and cannabinoids could exert complex neuropharmacological actions. As discussed in this commentary, the meaning response may play a role in the broad palliative and therapeutic effects of medical cannabis unprecedented by other phytopharmaceuticals.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via model Cannabinoid Inheritance Relies on Complex Genetic Architecture May 2019
Cannabinoid inheritance is more complex than previously appreciated; among other genetic effects, cytogenetic and maternal contributions may be undervalued influences on cannabinoid ratios and concentrations.
cannabis chronic pain via model A Cost-Effectiveness Model for Adjunctive Smoked Cannabis in the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain Mar 2019
cannabis appears cost-effective when augmenting second-line treatment for painful neuropathy. Further research is warranted to explore the long-term benefit of smoked cannabis and standardization of its dosing for chronic neuropathic pain.
cannabis extraction via review Extractions of Medical Cannabis Cultivars and the Role of Decarboxylation in Optimal Receptor Responses May 2019
Microwave extraction consistently produced completely decarboxylated phytocannabinoid extracts. Factors such as temperature and exposure time play important roles in the decarboxylation of phytocannabinoids, thereby generating pharmacologically active CBs, and these conditions may differ for each cannabis cultivar.
cannabis metabolism in humans via trial (n=23) Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentration Trends Postcannabis Exposure in Medical Cannabis Patients Jun 2019
Our findings show that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) breath concentrations peaked in 0.5 hours and reached baseline levels after 2 hours in all the patients. We found an inverse correlation between individuals' body mass index and their peak breath concentrations, and an inverse relationship between age and peak breath concentrations.
cannabis hyperemesis via review Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome in Palliative Care: A Case Study and Narrative Review May 2019
The presentation of cannabis hyperemesis may be atypical in palliative care patients due to disability. More work is needed to improve risk stratification for patients using cannabis for palliative care.
cannabis cud in humans via experiment (n=87) Threat Responsiveness as a Function of Cannabis and Alcohol Use Disorder Severity Jun 2019
Increasing levels of CUD symptomatology were associated with decreased responding to looming stimuli within regions, including rostral frontal and fusiform gyrus as well as the amygdala.
cannabis,THC,CBD,THCV,cannabinoids entourage via review The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin Jan 2008
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
It is now well established that delta-9-THC is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor partial agonist and that depending on the expression level and coupling efficiency of these receptors it will either activate them or block their activation by other cannabinoids.
cannabis consumption in humans via trial (n=9) An MR-compatible device for delivering smoked marijuana during functional imaging Apr 2007
The device allowed subjects to smoke while they lay in the scanner, while containing all smoke and odors. Plasma delta-9-THC, subjective reports of intoxication, and heart rate increases are reported, and were all similar in individuals smoking marijuana either with or without the device.
cannabis cancer,testicular cancer in humans via study (n=369) Association of Marijuana Use and the Incidence of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Mar 2009
Negative  We observed an association between marijuana use and occurrence of nonseminoma germ cell tumors of the testis. Additional studies of TGCTs are needed to test this hypothesis, including molecular analyses of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid signaling that may provide clues to biologic mechanisms.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial Opposite Effects of delta--9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology Feb 2010
Ingestion Method: 10 mg of THC, 600 mg of CBD
Positive  delta--9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the striatum during verbal recall, in the hippocampus during the response inhibition task, in the amygdala when subjects viewed fearful faces, in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech, and in the occipital cortex during visual processing. In the second experiment, pretreatment with CBD prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms by delta--9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
cannabis neuropathy,pain,hiv in humans via placebo trial (n=28/34) Smoked Medicinal Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain in HIV: A Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial Aug 2008
Ingestion Method: Titration was started at 4% THC or placebo and adjusted incrementally downwards (to 2 or 1%) if side effects were intolerable, or upwards (to 6 or 8%) if pain relief was incomplete
Positive  Pain reduction was significantly greater with cannabis compared to placebo (median difference in pain reduction = 3.3 DDS points; effect size = 0.60; p = 0.016, all completers included; Figure 4). The results were consistent for the ITT analysis (p = 0.020), and for the comparison based on the first week of treatment alone (median change in DDS pain = -4.1 and 0.1 for the cannabis and placebo arms, p = 0.029). There were no evident sequence effects: the degree of pain relief achieved with active cannabis did not differ significantly according to whether it was administered during the first or the second treatment week (mean reduction in DDS points, 4.1 vs 0.96; p = 0.13).
cannabis,THC entourage via review Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects Aug 2011
Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant.
cannabis entourage via review Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Aug 2011
CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGLalpha-. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors.
cannabis diabetes in humans via survey (n=10896) Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III Feb 2012
Positive  Marijuana users had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of DM compared to non-marijuana users (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.55; p<0.0001).
cannabis,cannabinoids cancer,prostate cancer via review The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications Jun 2012
It is our conclusion that it would be of interest to conduct clinical trials involving medicinal cannabis or other cannabinoid agonists, comparing clinical markers such as PSA with controls, especially in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer, whom would not only benefit from the possible anti-androgenic effects of cannabinoids but also from analgesia of bone pain, improving quality of life, while reducing narcotic consumption and preventing opioid dependence.
cannabis ms,spasticity,pain in humans via placebo trial (n=30/37) Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial Jul 2012
Ingestion Method: inhaled 0.8g cigarette, 4% THC
Positive  Using an objective measure, we saw a beneficial effect of inhaled cannabis on spasticity among patients receiving insufficient relief from traditional treatments. Although generally well-tolerated, smoking cannabis had acute cognitive effects.
cannabis cud in humans via survey (n=29) Cannabis Withdrawal in Chronic, Frequent Cannabis Smokers during Sustained Abstinence within a Closed Residential Environment May 2014
The combined influence of residual/offset drug effects, withdrawal and craving was observed in chronic cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Abstinence symptoms were generally more intense in the initial phase, implying importance of early intervention in cannabis quit attempts. Sleep disturbance persisting for an extended period suggests that hypnotic medications could be beneficial in treating cannabis dependence.
cannabis ptsd via review The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature May 2015
Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult to confirm at this time.
cannabis second hand smoke in humans via experiment Nonsmoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. III. Oral Fluid and Blood Drug Concentrations and Corresponding Subjective Effects Sep 2015
Positive tests for THC in oral fluid and blood were obtained for nonsmokers up to 3 h following exposure. Ratings of subjective effects correlated with the degree of exposure.
cannabis cultivation via review Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules Feb 2016
Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures.
cannabis diabetes in humans via survey Cannabis Smoking and Diabetes Mellitus: Results from Meta-Analysis with Eight Independent Replication Samples Jun 2016
Positive  Recently active cannabis smoking and diabetes are inversely associated. The meta-analytic summary odds ratio is 0.7 (95% CI = 0.6, 0.8).
cannabis second hand smoke in rats via experiment One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function Aug 2016
One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS substantially impairs endothelial function in rats for at least 90 minutes, considerably longer than comparable impairment by tobacco SHS.
cannabis history via review Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting Mar 2017
Medicinal cannabis, or medicinal marijuana, is a therapy that has garnered much national attention in recent years. Controversies surrounding legal, ethical, and societal implications associated with use; safe administration, packaging, and dispensing; adverse health consequences and deaths attributed to marijuana intoxication; and therapeutic indications based on limited clinical data represent some of the complexities associated with this treatment.
cannabis headache via review The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders Apr 2017
Positive  Although placebo-controlled clinical trials are still needed to appropriately determine efficacy, it appears likely that cannabis will emerge as a potential treatment for some headache sufferers.
cannabis second hand smoke via review Health effects of exposure to second- and third-hand marijuana smoke: a systematic review Oct 2017
Exposure to second-hand marijuana smoke leads to cannabinoid metabolites in bodily fluids, and people experience psychoactive effects after such exposure. Alignment of tobacco and marijuana smoking bylaws may result in the most effective public policies.
cannabis adolescent use in humans via study (n=1989) Associations between Adolescent Cannabis Use and Neuropsychological Decline: A Longitudinal Co-Twin Control Study Feb 2018
Negative  Compared with adolescents who did not use cannabis, adolescents who used cannabis had lower IQ in childhood, prior to cannabis initiation, and had lower IQ at age 18, but there was little evidence that cannabis use was associated with IQ decline from age 12-18.
cannabis cancer,testicular cancer in humans via study (n=49343) Cannabis use and incidence of testicular cancer: a 42-year follow-up of Swedish men between 1970 and 2011 Feb 2018
Neutral  No evidence was found of a significant relation between lifetime ever cannabis use and the subsequent development of testicular cancer [n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.42, 95% CI, 0.83, 2.45]. Heavy cannabis use (defined as usage of more than 50 times in lifetime, as measured at conscription) was associated with the incidence of testicular cancer (n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; AHR 2.57, 95% CI, 1.02, 6.50).
cannabis pain in humans via survey (n=984) Chronic Pain Patients Perspectives of Medical Cannabis Jul 2017
Positive  The largest positive theme identified related to health benefits. Respondents described in great depth how medical cannabis improved their treatment of chronic-pain and enhanced their quality of life.
THC,cannabis,Myrcene,Caryophyllene pain,headache in humans via survey (n=2032) Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort May 2018
Positive  Hybrid strains were preferred in ID Migraine(TM), headache, and most pain groups, with OG Shark, a high THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), low CBD (cannabidiol)/CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), strain with predominant terpenes beta--caryophyllene and beta--myrcene, most preferred in the headache and ID Migraine(TM) groups
cannabis excercise via review Cannabis and the Health and Performance of the Elite Athlete Aug 2018
Cannabis may be primarily inhaled or ingested orally for a range of medical and nonmedical reasons; evidence for efficacy is limited but promising for chronic pain management.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=48) Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function Sept 2018
Ingestion Method: vaporized THC 8 mg vs CBD 16 mg vs THC 8 mg + CBD 16 mg
Negative  The main findings of this study were an increase in psychotomimetic symptoms following administration of both THC alone and the combination of THC + CBD. Administration of both THC and the combination (THC + CBD) increased negative symptoms on the BPRS, along with perceptual distortions and cognitive disorganisation on the PSI. Lower frequency cannabis users experienced a reduction in psychotomimetic symptoms following CBD alone compared with placebo. Both THC and THC + CBD impaired performance on episodic and working memory tasks. Contrary to hypotheses, CBD did not offset the psychotomimetic effects of THC.
cannabis addiction,opioid via review Emerging Evidence for Cannabis' Role in Opioid Use Disorder Sept 2018
The compelling nature of these data and the relative safety profile of cannabis warrant further exploration of cannabis as an adjunct or alternative treatment for OUD.
cannabis,THC,CBD pain,anti-inflamatory via review Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment Sept 2018
Neutral  The clinical evidence collated to date is confounded by a number of factors, including studies with mixed patient populations, use of different cannabinoid preparations and in various formulations, and wide dosing ranges. Cannabis-derivative-based medicines may be able to enrich the drug treatment arsenal for chronic pain and inflammation conditions, although this is very much open to debate at the moment.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via review Cannabis Systematics at the Levels of Family, Genus, and Species Oct 2018
Print fossil of the extinct genus Dorofeevia (=Humularia) reveals that Cannabis lost a sibling perhaps 20 million years ago (mya). Cannabis print fossils are rare (n=3 worldwide), making it difficult to determine when and where she evolved.
cannabis malaria in mice via experiment (n=30) Oral Ingestion of Cannabis sativa: Risks, Benefits, and Effects on Malaria-Infected Hosts Nov 2018
Ingestion Method: whole plant consumption
C. sativa displayed mild antimalarial activity in vivo. There was evident reduction in symptomatic manifestation of malaria disease, though unrelated to levels of parasitemia.
cannabis anti-inflamatory in vitro The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis Dec 2018
The different Cannabis chemotypes showed distinct compositions of terpenoids. The terpenoid-rich essential oils exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in vitro and in vivo, which vary according to their composition.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via review The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No Strain, No Gain Jan 2019
While labeled strains in common parlance, this term is acceptable with respect to bacteria and viruses, but not among Plantae. Given that such factors as plant height and leaflet width do not distinguish one Cannabis plant from another and similar difficulties in defining terms in Cannabis, the only reasonable solution is to characterize them by their biochemical/pharmacological characteristics. Thus, it is best to refer to Cannabis types as chemical varieties, or chemovars.
cannabis anxiety,pain,depression in humans via survey (n=3341) The Association between Cannabis Product Characteristics and Symptom Relief Feb 2019
Patients showed an average symptom improvement of 3.5 (SD = 2.6) on an 11-point scale across the 27 measured symptom categories. Dried flower was the most commonly used product and generally associated with greater symptom relief than other types of products.
cannabis ibd,crohns in humans via review Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System--Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Mar 2019
Positive  Research into the distribution and function of the endocannabinoid system in IBD and models of intestinal inflammation is increasing. There is accumulating evidence that enhancing signalling through cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 has anti-inflammatory potential in the intestine in vivo
cannabis second hand smoke in humans via experiment Indoor cannabis smoke and children's health Mar 2019
Odds of reporting a greater number of adverse health outcomes were 1.83 (95% CI = 0.89-3.80, p = 0.10) times higher for children of families with indoor cannabis smoking vs families without cannabis smoking, after controlling for exposure to cigarette smoke and other covariates. Our results do not indicate a statistically significant association. However, the magnitude of the (non-significant) association between indoor cannabis smoking and adverse health outcomes warrants more studies.
cannabis parkinsons via review Marijuana for Parkinsons Disease? Jan 2019
Neutral  Medical marijuana might benefit motor and nonmotor aspects of Parkinsons disease patients. Currently, these assertions are not substantiated in human investigations and cannabis can also induce side effects. Until studies clarify the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy with cannabis products, medical marijuana remains largely without scientific endorsement.
cannabis metabolism via review Cannabis and Its Secondary Metabolites: Their Use as Therapeutic Drugs, Toxicological Aspects, and Analytical Determination Mar 2019
This review comprehends the main secondary metabolites of Cannabis, approaching their therapeutic potential and applications, as well as their potential risks, in order to differentiate the consumption as recreational drugs.
cannabis excercise in humans via survey (n=620) The New Runner's High? Examining Relationships Between Cannabis Use and Exercise Behavior in States With Legalized Cannabis Apr 2019
Positive  In summary, these data suggest that many cannabis users in states with legal cannabis access use in conjunction with exercise, and that most who do so believe it increases enjoyment of, recovery from, and to some extent the motivation to engage in exercise
cannabis cultivation via review The Complex Interactions Between Flowering Behavior and Fiber Quality in Hemp May 2019
Before improved hemp cultivars can be developed, with specific flowering-times and fiber qualities, and adapted to different geographical regions, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling important phenological traits such as flowering-time and sex determination in relation to fiber quality in hemp is required. It is well known that genetic factors play a major role in the outcome of both phenological traits, but the major molecular factors involved in this mechanism are not characterized in hemp.
cannabis copd in humans via case study (n=1) COPD secondary or associated with cannabis dependence Jul 2019
Negative  The purpose of this article is to preset a case of secondary COPD associated to regular cannabis consumption or dependency.
cannabis hyperemesis in humans via case study (n=1) Emerging Role of Aprepitant in Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome Jun 2019
We report a case study where aprepitant (Emend) was successfully used as an anti-emetic in the treatment of CHS when all other common anti-emetics failed.
cannabis ms,spasticity in humans via placebo trial (n=37/50) Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Aug 2004
Ingestion Method: oral 2.5mg THC/0.9mg CBD
Positive  A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs.
cannabis hiv,pain,appetite boost in humans via survey (n=523) Cannabis Use in HIV for Pain and Other Medical Symptoms Apr 2005
Positive  Symptom control using cannabis is widespread in HIV outpatients. A large number of patients reported that cannabis improved symptom control.
cannabis pain,hiv in humans via placebo trial (n=50) Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Feb 2007
Ingestion Method: 3.56% THC cigarettes
Positive  Smoked cannabis reduced daily pain by 34% (median reduction; IQR = -71, -16) vs 17% (IQR = -29, 8) with placebo (p = 0.03). Greater than 30% reduction in pain was reported by 52% in the cannabis group and by 24% in the placebo group (p = 0.04). The first cannabis cigarette reduced chronic pain by a median of 72% vs 15% with placebo (p < 0.001)
cannabis breathhold duration in humans via placebo trial (n=10) Response to marijuana as a function of potency and breathhold duration. 1991
Ingestion Method: 2.5% THC
Negative  Breathhold duration affected CO absorption; significantly more CO was absorbed from both P and M smoke after 20 s of breathholding (mean CO boost = 6.9 ppm) than after no breathholding (mean = 4.4 ppm). Heart rate was minimally affected by the breathhold manipulation. Effects of marijuana on mood were not consistently affected by breathhold duration. The results confirm previous findings that prolonged breathholding does not substantially enhance the effects of inhaled marijuana smoke.
cannabis pain,neuropathy in humans via trial (n=21/23) Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Oct 2010
Ingestion Method: 25mg THC
Positive  A single inhalation of 25 mg of 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol herbal cannabis three times daily for five days reduced the intensity of pain, improved sleep and was well tolerated.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via review A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Jun 2004
Two biotypes (infraspecific taxa of unassigned rank) of C. sativa and four biotypes of C. indica were recognized. Mean THC levels and the frequency of B(T) were significantly higher in C. indica than C. sativa. The proportion of high THC/CBD chemotype plants in most accessions assigned to C. sativa was <25% and in most accessions assigned to C. indica was >25%. Plants with relatively high levels of tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and/or cannabidivarin (CBDV) were common only in C. indica. This study supports a two-species concept of Cannabis.
cannabis diabetes in humans via survey (n=4657) The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults. Jul 2013
Positive  In multivariable adjusted models, current marijuana use was associated with 16% lower fasting insulin levels (95% confidence interval [CI], -26, -6) and 17% lower HOMA-IR (95% CI, -27, -6). We found significant associations between marijuana use and smaller waist circumferences. Among current users, we found no significant dose-response.
cannabis adhd in humans via survey (n=2811) Subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use. Mar 2014
When asked about the ADHD symptoms they have experienced when not using cannabis, a higher proportion of daily users met symptom criteria for an ADHD diagnoses of the subtypes that include hyperactive-impulsive symptoms than the inattentive subtype. For nondaily users, the proportions of users meeting symptom criteria did not differ by subtype. These results have implications for identifying which individuals with ADHD might be more likely to self-medicate using cannabis
cannabis pain,sedative,anxiety in humans via survey (n=628) Cannabis for therapeutic purposes: patient characteristics, access, and reasons for use. Nov 2013
Positive  Across medical conditions respondents reported using cannabis to effectively address diverse symptoms. Results indicate a substantial disconnect between the therapeutic use of cannabis and research on the risks and benefits of such use; particularly with regard to the anxiolytic and sedative use of cannabis.
cannabis breathhold duration in humans via trial Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke Sept 1988
Negative  Typical marijuana effects (increased heart rate, increased ratings of high and impaired memory performance) were observed under each of the breathhold conditions, but there was little evidence that response to marijuana was a function of breathhold duration.
cannabis obesity,diabetes in humans via survey (n=786) Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the Inuit population. Feb 2015
Positive  Cannabis use was highly prevalent in the study population (57.4%) and was statistically associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), lower % fat mass (P < 0.001), lower fasting insulin (P = 0.04), and lower HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), after adjusting for numerous confounding variables. Further adjustment for BMI rendered fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differences statistically nonsignificant between past-year cannabis users and nonusers. Mediation analysis showed that the effect of cannabis use on insulin resistance was indirect, through BMI.
cannabis bladder cancer in humans via survey (n=84170) Association between cannabis use and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the California Men's Health Study. Feb 2015
Positive  After adjusting for age, race or ethnicity, and body mass index, using tobacco only was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (hazard regression [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.07), whereas cannabis use only was associated with a 45% reduction in bladder cancer incidence (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-1.00). Using both cannabis and tobacco was associated with an HR of 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91-1.80).
cannabis pain,migraine via review Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Long Strange Trip It's Been .... May 2015
The literature suggests that the medicinal use of cannabis may have a therapeutic role for a multitude of diseases, particularly chronic pain disorders including headache. Supporting literature suggests a role for medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids in several types of headache disorders including migraine and cluster headache, although it is primarily limited to case based, anecdotal, or laboratory-based scientific research.
cannabis sexual health in humans via survey (n=1215) Association Between Use of Marijuana and Male Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality: A Study Among 1,215 Healthy Young Men. Sep 2015
Negative  Regular marijuana smoking more than once per week was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval (CI): -48, -1) lower sperm concentration and a 29% (95% CI: -46, -1) lower total sperm count after adjustment for confounders.
cannabis safety in humans via trial (n=415) Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS). Dec 2015
Ingestion Method: 12.5% THC cannabis
Positive  This study evaluated the safety of cannabis use by patients with chronic pain over 1 year. The study found that there was a higher rate of adverse events among cannabis users compared with controls but not for serious adverse events at an average dose of 2.5 g herbal cannabis per day.
cannabis sedative via survey (n=98) Marijuana use patterns and sleep among community-based young adults Oct 2014
Negative  Covariate adjusted regression analyses revealed mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scores were significantly lower for non-daily users and controls relative to the daily users. When adjusting for depression and anxiety, these unique associations were not significant.
cannabis headache,migraine via interview (n=120) Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population May 2016
Ingestion Method: inhaled
Positive  Positive effects were reported in 48 patients (39.7%), with the most common effects reported being prevention of migraine headache with decreased frequency of migraine headache (24 patients [19.8%]) and aborted migraine headache (14 patients [11.6%]). Inhaled forms of marijuana were commonly used for acute migraine treatment and were reported to abort migraine headache.
cannabis epilepsy in human via trial (n=77) CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience. Feb 2016
Ingestion Method: 1 to 20mg/kg/d, 20:1 CBD
Positive  CBD treatment yielded a significant positive effect on seizure load. Most of the children (66/74, 89%) reported reduction in seizure frequency
cannabis ptsd via review Cannabinoids and post-traumatic stress disorder: clinical and preclinical evidence for treatment and prevention. Oct 2016
Preliminary studies in humans also suggest that treatment with cannabinoids may decrease PTSD symptoms including sleep quality, frequency of nightmares, and hyperarousal.
cannabis entourage via review Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids. 2017
The pharmacological effect of each individual phytocannabinoid is important in the overall therapeutic and recreational effect of cannabis and slight structural differences can elicit diverse and competing physiological effects. The proportion of each phytocannabinoid can be influenced by various factors such as growing conditions and extraction methods.
Negative  2.72x odds of low birth weight with maternal marijuana use.
cannabis sleep via review Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Apr 2017
Neutral  Research on cannabis and sleep is in its infancy and has yielded mixed results. Additional controlled and longitudinal research is critical to advance our understanding of research and clinical implications.
cannabis entourage via review Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads. Jun 2017
This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas.
cannabis asthma via review Cannabis-Associated Asthma and Allergies. Apr 2019
Negative  Although smoking of marijuana may cause respiratory symptoms, there is a need for more studies to elucidate many aspects in allergic asthma patients, especially considering the long-term use of the drug. These patients should avoid using marijuana and be oriented about individual health risks, possible dangers of second-hand smoke exposure, underage use, safe storage, and the over smoking of marijuana.
cannabis liver in humans via survey (n=22366) Inverse association of marijuana use with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in the United States. Oct 2017
Positive  In this nationally representative sample, active marijuana use provided a protective effect against NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. The pathophysiology is unclear and warrants further investigation.
cannabis adolescent use via review Medical Cannabinoids in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Nov 2017
Evidence for benefit was strongest for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, with increasing evidence of benefit for epilepsy. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to support use for spasticity, neuropathic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and Tourette syndrome.
cannabis sexual health in humans via survey (n=50000) Association Between Marijuana Use and Sexual Frequency in the United States: A Population-Based Study Nov 2017
Positive  Marijuana use is independently associated with increased sexual frequency and does not appear to impair sexual function.
cannabis elderly,opioid in humans via survey (n=2736) Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. Mar 2018
Positive  Our study finds that the therapeutic use of cannabis is safe and efficacious in the elderly population. Cannabis use may decrease the use of other prescription medicines, including opioids
cannabis cud in humans via trial (n=15) Guanfacine decreases symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in daily cannabis smokers. Jul 2019
Ingestion Method: guanfacine (2 mg)
Action Pathway: A2A
The alpha-2a-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, reduced cannabis withdrawal-related sleep disruption in the laboratory, but side effects (e.g. fatigue, hypotension) limit its utility as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.
cannabis ibd in humans via survey (n=99) Marijuana Use by Adolescents and Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Jun 2017
Positive  Marijuana use by adolescents and young adults with IBD is common and perceived as beneficial.
cannabis liver in humans via study (n=42) Long-Term Heavy Recreational Cannabis Use and Serum Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels are not Associated with an Impaired Liver Function in Cannabis Dependents. Sep 2018
These results argue against a relevant harmful impact of chronic cannabis inhalation on the liver function of relatively healthy humans (apart from nicotine dependence). Specifically, the liver function tests were not significantly influenced by THC and THC-COOH levels, both objective markers for the amount and duration of prior cannabis use.
cannabis cud in humans via survey Falling rates of marijuana dependence among heavy users. Oct 2018
Though it is unclear why, the risk of dependence formation among heavy marijuana users appear to have declined since 2002. Further research is warranted regarding explanations related to state marijuana policies, product forms, or social context.
THC,CBD,cannabis migraine,headache,pain in humans via review Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science. Jul 2018
Positive  There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache.
cannabis liver via review Cannabis in liver disorders: a friend or a foe? Nov 2018
All in all, the recent trends in research, clinical experiences, as well as the legislature, has opened up new avenues towards the widespread clinical application of cannabis and its derivatives as well as modifiers of the components of the endocannabinoid system. More research is required to fully exploit these new evidences.
cannabis adolescent use in mice Adolescent delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure and Astrocyte-Specific Genetic Vulnerability Converge on Nuclear Factor-kappa-B-Cyclooxygenase-2 Signaling to Impair Memory in Adulthood Jun 2019
The fact that not all users develop cognitive impairment suggests a genetic vulnerability to adverse effects of cannabis, which are attributed to action of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), a cannabis constituent and partial agonist of brain cannabinoid receptor 1
cannabis liver via review Marijuana is not associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis in liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Feb 2019
Marijuana use did not increase the prevalence or progression of hepatic fibrosis in HCV and HCV-HIV-coinfected patients. On the contrary, we noted a reduction in the prevalence of NAFLD in marijuana users. Future studies are needed to further understand the therapeutic impact of cannabidiol-based formulations in the management of NAFLD.
cannabis addiction,opioid in humans via study (n=820) High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis Dec 2018
Among people who use illicit drugs initiating opioid agonist treatment in Vancouver, at least daily cannabis use was associated with approximately 21% greater odds of retention in treatment compared with less than daily consumption.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via review Interaction between warfarin and cannabis Jan 2019
The in vitro study indicated that THC inhibits the CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of warfarin. One case study reported of a man who on two occasions of increased marijuana use experienced INR values above 10 as well as bleeding. The other case study reported of a patient who initiated treatment with a liquid formulation of cannabidiol for the management of epilepsy, ultimately necessitating a 30% reduction in warfarin dose to maintain therapeutic INR values.
cannabis fibromyalgia in humans via trial (n=20) An experimental randomized study on the analgesic effects of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis in chronic pain patients with fibromyalgia. Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: Bedrocan (22.4-mg THC), Bediol (13.4-mg THC, 17.8-mg CBD), Bedrolite (18.4-mg CBD)
Cannabis varieties containing THC caused a significant increase in pressure pain threshold relative to placebo (P < 0.01). Cannabidiol inhalation increased THC plasma concentrations but diminished THC-induced analgesic effects, indicative of synergistic pharmacokinetic but antagonistic pharmacodynamic interactions of THC and CBD.
cannabis adhd in humans via survey Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and lifetime cannabis use: genetic overlap and causality. Jan 2019
Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach we found support that ADHD is causal for lifetime cannabis use, with an odds ratio of 7.9 for cannabis use in individuals with ADHD in comparison to individuals without ADHD (95% CI (3.72, 15.51), P = 5.88 x 10-5)
cannabis opioid in humans via review (n=4840562) Impact of Medical Marijuana Legalization on Opioid Use, Chronic Opioid Use, and High-risk Opioid Use. Jan 2019
Positive  Medical marijuana legalization was found to be associated with a lower odds of any opioid use: OR = 0.95 (0.94-0.96), chronic opioid use: OR = 0.93 (0.91-0.95), and high-risk opioid use: OR = 0.96 (0.94-0.98)
cannabis sexual health in humans via survey (n=662) Marijuana smoking and markers of testicular function among men from a fertility centre Feb 2019
Positive  Men who had ever smoked marijuana (N = 365) had significantly higher sperm concentration (62.7 (95% confidence interval: 56.0, 70.3) million/mL) than men who had never smoked marijuana (N = 297) (45.4 (38.6, 53.3) million/mL) after adjusting for potential confounders (P = 0.0003)
cannabis hyperemesis in humans via review The utility of droperidol in the treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome Feb 2019
We reported the use of droperidol in the management of CHS. Droperidol treatment group median length of stay was significantly lower compared to the no droperidol treatment group (6.7 vs. 13.9 hours, p = .014). The most frequent dosage of droperidol used was 0.625mg intravenously.
cannabis pregnancy in humans via review Cannabis Use in Pregnancy in British Columbia and Selected Birth Outcomes Feb 2019
Negative  Using cannabis in pregnancy was associated with a 47% increased risk of SGA (adjusted OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.33-1.61), a 27% increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.14-1.42), and a 184% increased risk of intrapartum stillbirth (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.84; 95% CI 1.18-6.82)
cannabis sedative,insomnia in rats via experiment Acute effect of vaporized Cannabis on sleep and electrocortical activity Feb 2019
Ingestion Method: 0 (control), 40, 80 and 200 mg of 11.5% THC Cannabis
Neutral  In conclusion, administration of low doses of THC by vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis produced a small increment of NREM sleep, but only during the light (resting) phase. This was accompanied by subtle modifications of high frequency bands power (during the light phase) and spindle coherence (during the dark phase), which are associated with cognitive processing
cannabis sexual health in humans via survey (n=373) The Relationship between Marijuana Use Prior to Sex and Sexual Function in Women Jan 2019
Positive  After adjusting for race and age, women with frequent marijuana use, regardless of use before sex or not, had 2.10 times higher odds of reporting satisfactory orgasms than those with infrequent marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.01-4.44).
cannabis hyperemesis via review Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: An unrecognized cause of nausea and vomiting. Apr 2019
Although the definitive treatment of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is discontinuing the causative agent, medical management that includes rehydration is important to prevent complications. Common antiemetic medications are ineffective, but some studies have shown haloperidol and lorazepam to be effective in treating acute symptoms.
cannabis elderly in humans via survey (n=136) Qualitative Analysis of Cannabis Use Among Older Adults in Colorado. Mar 2019
Older adults want more information about cannabis and desire to communicate with their healthcare providers. Older adults who used cannabis for medical purposes reported positive outcomes but highlighted difficulties in accessing medical cannabis.
cannabis,CBD drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=17) Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain's resting-state functional connectivity. Apr 2019
Ingestion Method: cannabis 8mg THC, cannabis 8mg THC + 10mg CBD
Positive  THC disrupts the DMN, and the PCC is a key brain region involved in the subjective experience of THC intoxication. CBD restores disruption of the salience network by THC, which may explain its potential to treat disorders of salience such as psychosis and addiction.
cannabis,THC pregnancy in vitro delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human BeWo trophoblasts. May 2019
Negative  Collectively, these findings indicate that delta-9-THC can directly augment ER stress resulting in aberrant placental gene expression and impaired mitochondrial function.
cannabis pain in humans via review (n=1534) Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for cancer pain : A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. May 2019
Neutral  Very low quality evidence suggests that oromucosal nabiximols and THC have no effect on pain, sleep problems and opioid consumption in patients with cancer pain with insufficient pain relief from opioids.
cannabis hiv in humans Effect of Cannabis Use on HIV DNA during Suppressive ART. May 2019
Positive  Cannabis use is frequent among people living with HIV and is associated with reduced systemic inflammation. We observed a faster HIV DNA decay during antiretroviral therapy among cannabis users, compared to no drug use.
cannabis driving in humans via study (n=3005) Cannabis use as a risk factor for causing motor vehicle crashes: a prospective study. May 2019
In this sample of non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in British Columbia, Canada, there was no evidence of increased crash risk in drivers with THC<5ng/mL and a statistically non-significant increased risk of crash responsibility (OR=1.74) in drivers with THC>=5ng/mL.
cannabis consumption in humans via survey A qualitative analysis of cannabis vaporization among medical users. May 2019
Various factors contribute to cannabis vaporization among medical users that are both general and medical-specific. Certain aspects of vaping may also interfere with effective delivery of cannabis, including technology aspects and device cost.
cannabis cud via review Cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis May 2019
Cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts were weakly associated in bipolar disorder.
cannabis ms in humans via survey (n=2244/3606) Illegal cannabis use is common among Danes with multiple sclerosis May 2019
Positive  This study shows that illegal cannabis use is common among Danes with MS as only 21% of the current cannabis users received prescribed cannabis-based medicine. Current cannabis users reported high efficacy in relieving pain, spasticity and sleep disturbances. In addition, only mild to moderate severity of adverse effects were reported
cannabis cud in humans via trial (n=302) Acute and long-term cannabis use among stimulant users: Results from CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) Randomized Control Trial May 2019
For those who adhered to the exercise intervention, vigorous intensity, high dose exercise resulted in less cannabis use.
cannabis pain,opioid in humans via survey (n=77) Medical Cannabis: Effects on Opioid and Benzodiazepine Requirements for Pain Control. May 2019
Positive  Over the course of this 6-month retrospective study, patients using medical cannabis for intractable pain experienced a significant reduction in the number of MMEs available to use for pain control.
cannabis cud in humans via trial (n=37) A preliminary test of a brief intervention to lessen young adults' cannabis use: Episode-level smartphone data highlights the role of protective behavioral strategies and exercise. May 2019
Participants reduced their cannabis use by approximately 1 half of a standard joint per time point. The MET + CBT + Exercise condition reduced cannabis use to a greater degree than did the MET + CBT condition.
cannabis diabetes in humans via study (n=129509) Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight, and obese US adults. Jun 2019
Marijuana use is associated with lower FINS and HOMA-IR in obese but not non-obese adults, even at low frequency of less than four uses per month. Former marijuana consumers with high lifetime use had significantly lower FINS levels that persisted, independent of the duration of time since last use.
cannabis cancer via review What is the evidence for cannabis use in otolaryngology?: A narrative review. May 2019
The majority were published in the last decade and pertain to the subspecialty of Head and Neck; specifically, its association with incident cancers. A small number of studies exist that suggest cannabis may be a useful therapy for Otolaryngological patients suffering from blepharospasm, the effects of radiation, and the psychological sequelae of receiving a cancer diagnosis.
cannabis metabolism in humans via experiment (n=118) CNR1 and FAAH variation and affective states induced by marijuana smoking. Jun 2019
These preliminary findings suggest individual differences in mood states after using marijuana depend on genetic variation. Such information might be useful in understanding either motivation for use of marijuana and/or risk for associated behaviors.
cannabis pregnancy in humans via survey (n=661617) Association Between Self-reported Prenatal Cannabis Use and Maternal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Outcomes. Jun 2019
Negative  Among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada, reported cannabis use was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Findings may be limited by residual confounding.
cannabis liver in humans via study (n=390) Cannabis consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A three years longitudinal study in first episode non-affective psychosis patients. Jun 2019
Cannabis consumption may produce a protective effect against liver steatosis in psychosis, probably through the modulation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
cannabis pain,sleep in humans via survey (n=1000) Use of Cannabis to Relieve Pain and Promote Sleep by Customers at an Adult Use Dispensary. Jul 2019
Among respondents taking cannabis for pain, 80% reported that it was very or extremely helpful, and most of those taking over-the-counter pain medications (82%) or opioid analgesics (88%) reported reducing or stopping use of those medications. Among respondents taking cannabis for sleep, 84% found it very or extremely helpful, and most of those taking over-the-counter (87%) or prescription sleep aids (83%) reported reducing or stopping use of those medications.
cannabis hyperemesis in humans via study (n=4) Resolution of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome with Benzodiazepines: A Case Series. Jun 2019
After excluding urgent gastrointestinal and CNS origins for the vomiting, we suspected CHS. All four patients experienced similar symptoms and failure of conventional treatment with antiemetics and proton pump inhibitors. They experienced relief after administration of benzodiazepines.
cannabis sleep in humans via study (n=311) Cannabis Expectancies for Sleep. Jul 2019
Analyses revealed that participants expected cannabis to decrease the incidence of sleep-related problems, including allowing participants to have an earlier bedtime, to fall asleep more quickly, and to have a longer night's sleep. Moreover, expectancies about the influence of cannabis on sleep negatively covaried with cannabis-related problems.
cannabis cud in humans via trial (n=22) Guanfacine extended-release for cannabis use disorder: a pilot feasibility trial. Jul 2019
G-XR is a feasible treatment for CUDs, and should be evaluated further in an efficacy trial.
cannabis pregnancy via review Marijuana Use in Pregnancy: A Review. Jul 2019
Negative  Available studies on marijuana exposure in pregnancy were reviewed and support some degree of developmental disruption, including an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and adverse neurodevelopmental consequences. However, much of the existing prenatal marijuana research was performed in the 1980s, when quantities of THC were lower and the frequency of use was less.
cannabis ibd in humans via study (n=6002) In-hospital outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease in cannabis users: a nationwide propensity-matched analysis in the United States. Jun 2019
We found a lower frequency of colorectal cancer, parenteral nutrition, anemia but a higher occurrences of active fistulizing disease or intraabdominal abscess formation, lower GI hemorrhage and hypovolemia in the CD cohort with cannabis usage.
cannabis adolescent use in humans via study (n=1000) Associations between adolescent cannabis use frequency and adult brain structure: A prospective study of boys followed to adulthood. Sep 2019
Adolescent cannabis use is not associated with structural brain differences in adulthood.
cannabis ptsd in humans via study (n=1107) Post-traumatic stress and marijuana outcomes: The mediating role of marijuana protective behavioral strategies. Jul 2019
Taken together, the associations between higher PTSD symptoms and greater experience of CUD symptoms and marijuana-related problems may occur because students use fewer protective measures and thus engage in larger quantity and frequency of marijuana use.
cannabis diabetes via review Diabetes Canada Position Statement on Recreational Cannabis Use in Adults and Adolescents With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Aug 2019
The review found a limited amount of published or presented literature for the review questions, with gaps in direct evidence linking cessation of cannabis use to improved outcomes in diabetes. However, there were sufficient data to begin developing recommendations for type 1 and type 2 diabetes about education, counseling and management related to recreational cannabis usage.
cannabis cancer via review Opportunities for cannabis in supportive care in cancer. Aug 2019
There is a reasonable amount of evidence to consider cannabis for nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and pain as a supplement to first-line treatments. There is promising evidence to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal distress, and sleep disorders, but the literature is thus far too limited to recommend cannabis for these symptoms.
cannabis driving via study Drivers who tested positive for cannabis in oral fluid: a longitudinal analysis of administrative data for Spain between 2011 and 2016. Aug 2019
Cannabis positivity is frequent among drivers, and polysubstance use is common. Hence, focusing on younger drivers and those with low THC concentrations is encouraged. This study provides evidence on the current implementation of roadside drug testing in Spain and aims to characterise driving under the influence (DUI) of cannabis to increase the awareness of all involved to help them avoid DUI.
cannabis cardiovascular via review Cannabis and Cardiovascular Disease Jun 2019
There is suggestion on a molecular level and based on retrospective analyses that cannabis may have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. However, prospective clinical data has not confirmed these suggested findings. Further research is needed to better elucidate the association, if any, between cannabis and cardiovascular disease.
cannabis diabetes in humans via review (n=129,509) Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese U.S. adults Jun 2019
Positive  Marijuana use is associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in obese but not in non-obese adults, even at low frequency of < 4 uses per month. Former consumers with high lifetime use had a significant lower insulin levels which persists, independent of the duration of time since last use.
cannabis pain,anxiety,depression in humans via review Patient-reported use of medical cannabis for pain, anxiety, and depression symptoms: Systematic review and meta-analysis Jun 2019
Positive  Meta-analytic results indicated that pain (64%), anxiety (50%), and depression/mood (34%) were common reasons for medical cannabis use. No evidence for publication bias was detected, despite heterogeneity in prevalence rates.
cannabis adolescent use in humans via study (n=94035) Cannabis use and leisure-time sedentary behavior among 94,035 adolescents aged 12-15 years from 24 low- and middle-income countries Aug 2019
2.8% of the adolescents in low- and middle-income countries used cannabis at least once in the past 30 days
cannabis cud in humans via survey (n=39599) Integration of screening, assessment, and treatment for cannabis and other drug use disorders in primary care: An evaluation in three pilot sites Apr 2019
A pilot implementation of BHI to increase routine screening and assessment for SUDs was associated with increased new CUD diagnoses and a small increase in treatment of new other DUDs.
cannabis sleep in humans via study (n=1656) Onset of regular cannabis use and adult sleep duration: Genetic variation and the implications of a predictive relationship Aug 2019
Earlier age of onset for regular cannabis use was significantly associated with shorter adult sleep duration on both weekdays (beta- = -0.13, 95% CI = [-0.23, -0.04]) and weekends (beta- = -0.18, 95% CI = [-0.27, -0.08]).
cannabis,THC pain in humans via study (n=2987) The effectiveness of self-directed medical cannabis treatment for pain Jul 2019
The average cannabis user experiences a momentary pain intensity reduction of roughly 3 points on a 0-10 pain scale following cannabis consumption. The results suggest that Cannabis flower with moderate to high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol is an effective mid-level analgesic.
cannabis anti-bacterial in vitro Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sep 2018
The leaf extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava had potential for the control of both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA.
cannabis crime via review Crime and the legalization of recreational marijuana Feb 2018
Positive  Combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, we find that the policy caused a significant reduction in rapes and property crimes on the Washington side of the border in 2013-2014 relative to the Oregon side and relative to the pre-legalization years 2010-2012. The legalization also increased consumption of marijuana and reduced consumption of other drugs and both ordinary and binge alcohol.
cannabis crime via review Joint culpability: The effects of medical marijuana laws on crime Jul 2016
Both the regression analysis and the synthetic control method suggest no causal effects of medical marijuana laws on violent or property crime at the national level. We also find no strong effects within individual states, except for in California where the medical marijuana law reduced both violent and property crime by 20%.
cannabis sexual health in humans via survey (n=216) How Cannabis Alters Sexual Experience: A Survey of Men and Women Aug 2019
Many participants in our study found that cannabis helped them relax, heightened their sensitivity to touch, and increased intensity of feelings, thus enhancing their sexual experience, while others found that cannabis interfered by making them sleepy and less focused or had no effect on their sexual experience.
cannabis chemotaxonomy via study Genomic and Chemical Diversity in Cannabis Feb 2017
We have combined data from existing sources and generated new data to create the largest sample set of Cannabis genomic sequence data published to date. These data and analyses will continue to facilitate the development of modernized breeding and quality assurance tools, which are lacking in the nascent legal Cannabis industry.
cannabis sexual health in humans via experiment (n=24/37) Cannabinoid exposure and altered DNA methylation in rat and human sperm Jul 2018
Negative  In humans, cannabis use was also associated with significantly lower sperm concentration. Findings point to possible pre-conception paternal reproductive risks associated with cannabis use.
cannabis pain in humans via interview (n=1260/1514) Effect of cannabis use in people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids: findings from a 4-year prospective cohort study July 2018
Negative  We found no evidence of a temporal relationship between cannabis use and pain severity or pain interference, and no evidence that cannabis use reduced prescribed opioid use or increased rates of opioid discontinuation.
cannabis adolescent use in humans via study (n=644) Prospective Analysis of Prevalence, Trajectories of Change, and Correlates of Cannabis Misuse in Older Adolescents from Coastal Touristic Regions in Croatia. Aug 2019
Quitting sports was a risk factor for CC at baseline and follow-up. Better sport competitive results (odds ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96) and familial social status (socioeconomic status: OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.39-0.91; maternal education: OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) were associated with lower likelihood of CC at baseline.
cannabis drug potentiator via review The Potential for Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Cannabis Products and Conventional Medications. Sep 2019
Medications that are prominent substrates for CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 may be particularly at risk of altered disposition by concomitant use of cannabis or 1 or more of its constituents. Caution should also be given when coadministered drugs are metabolized by UGT or CES1, on which subject the information remains limited and further investigation is warranted. Conversely, conventional drugs with strong inhibitory or inductive effects on CYP3A4 are expected to affect CBD disposition.
cannabis tourettes via review Cannabis in the Treatment of Dystonia, Dyskinesias, and Tics Aug 2015
Tics, usually due to Tourettes, did respond to cannabis preparations.
cannabis,Dronabinol tourettes in humans via case study (n=2) Speechlessness in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Cannabis-Based Medicines Improve Severe Vocal Blocking Tics in Two Patients. Aug 2017
We report the cases of two young German male patients with treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS), who suffer from incapacitating stuttering-like speech disfluencies caused by vocal blocking tics and palilalia. Case 1: a 19-year old patient received medical cannabis at a dose of 1 x 0.1 g cannabis daily. Case 2: a 16-year old patient initially received dronabinol at a maximum dose of 22.4-33.6 mg daily. Both treatments provided significant symptom improvement of vocal blocking tics as well as of comorbid conditions and were well tolerated. Thus, cannabis-based medicine appears to be effective in treatment-resistant TS patients with vocal blocking tics.
cannabis pregnancy in humans via study Interaction of maternal choline levels and prenatal Marijuana's effects on the offspring Jul 2019
Prenatal marijuana use adversely affects fetal brain development and subsequent behavioral self-regulation, a precursor to later, more serious problems in childhood. Stopping marijuana use before 10 weeks gestational age prevented these effects.
cannabis drug potentiator in humans via case study (n=1) Probable Interaction Between Warfarin and Inhaled and Oral Administration of Cannabis. Jul 2019
The elevation in INR can be explained by the inhibition of CYP2C9 by [edible] cannabis use causing decreased metabolism of warfarin. The interaction between warfarin and cannabis was determined to be probable using the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale.
cannabis second hand smoke in humans via study Indoor cannabis smoke and children's health Jun 2019
Indoor cannabis smoking raises particle levels and risk of child particle exposure. Smoking cannabis in-home may adversely impact child health.
cannabis obesity,weight loss in humans via study Are cannabis users less likely to gain weight? Results from a national 3-year prospective study. Mar 2019
This new prospective study builds from anecdotes, pre-clinical studies and cross-sectional evidence on inverse associations linking cannabis use and obesity and shows an inverse cannabis-BMI increase association. Confirmatory studies with rigorous cannabis and BMI assays will be needed.
cannabis adolescent use in humans via study (n=401) Adolescent cannabis use and its associations with decision-making and episodic memory: Preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Jul 2019
Our findings suggest that poorer decision-making does not put teens at relatively early stages of cannabis use at risk for further escalation in use over one year. However, increasing cannabis use over the same period was associated with declines in immediate memory.