Cannabis and anti-inflamatory
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and anti-inflamatory.
Multiple cannabinoids and terpenes have been shown to releive inflamation.
See also: pain 
Click on a study title below to open a new tab with full article, or click on a compound to see it's full list of research.
Compounds Topics Title Date
CBD anti-inflamatory,skin cancer in vitro Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury Jun 2019
Down-regulation of genes involved in wound healing and skin inflammation was at least in part due to the presence of cannabidiol. Our findings provide new insights into the potential effect of Cannabisextracts against inflammation-based skin diseases.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,asthma in mice via experiment Differential Effects of Limonene on Inflammation via Activation of A2A and A2B Adenosine Receptors in Asthma Apr 2019
Action Pathway: A2AAR,A2BAR
We have shown that limonene induces bronchodilation and lowers inflammation via A2A receptor activation (FASEB J April 2017 31:820.1) in a mouse model of asthma.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory in vitro Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Jul 2008
Ingestion Method: 5mg/kg
Action Pathway: CB2
BCP (500 nM) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in peripheral blood and attenuates LPS-stimulated Erk1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation in monocytes. Furthermore, peroral (E)-BCP at 5 mg/kg strongly reduces the carrageenan-induced inflammatory response in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking CB(2) receptors, providing evidence that this natural product exerts cannabimimetic effects in vivo.
Humulene anti-inflamatory in mice via experiment Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene Alpha-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation Oct 2009
Ingestion Method: 1 mg?mL-1, by aerosol
alpha--Humulene, given either orally or by aerosol, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory properties in a murine model of airways allergic inflammation, an effect that seemed to be mediated via reduction of inflammatory mediators, adhesion molecule expression and transcription factors activation.
cannabinoids anti-inflamatory via review Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs Aug 2010
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
This review will focus on the potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T cells or other cellular immune components.
THCV anti-inflamatory in mice via experiment The plant cannabinoid delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice June 2010
Ingestion Method: 1-5mg/kg
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
THCV can activate CB2 receptors in vitro and decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice partly via CB1 and/or CB2 receptor activation.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory,ibd in mice via experiment Beta-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPARg pathway Mar 2011
Ingestion Method: 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg, p.o.
Action Pathway: CB2,PPARg
These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPARg pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
CBD anti-inflamatory in mice Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting Alpha3 glycine receptors June 2012
Action Pathway: alpha-3 GlyR
Spinal alpha-3 GlyRs have been proposed as an important target for pain treatment. However, the alpha-3 GlyR-based therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic pain or other diseases are not yet available. The current study has provided several lines of evidence to suggest that CBD and DH-CBD suppress persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting the alpha-3 GlyRs in rodents.
CBC anti-inflamatory in vitro The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis May 2013
Cannabichromene exerts anti-inflammatory actions in activated macrophages - with tonic CB1 cannabinoid signalling being negatively coupled to this effect - and ameliorates experimental murine colitis.
Borneol anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via placebo trial (n=36) Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice Apr 2013
Ingestion Method: 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg
Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.
CBD vasorelaxant,anti-inflamatory in vitro Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation Sept 2015
Action Pathway: CB1,TRP
This study shows, for the first time, that CBD causes vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via activation of CB1 and TRP channels, and is endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent.
CBD epilepsy,anti-inflamatory,neuroprotective via review Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders May 2014
The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; the alpha-3 and alpha-1 glycine receptors; and the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects.
Nerolidol anti-inflamatory,parkinsons,neuroprotective in mice Neuroprotective effect of nerolidol against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress induced by rotenone Aug 2016
Our findings are the first to show that the neuroprotective effect of nerolidol is mediated through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which strongly supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of PD.
CBD ibd,anti-inflamatory in mice An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse Oct 2016
In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.
O-1966, PF3845, JZL184, WWL70 TBI,anti-inflamatory in mice via review Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury Feb 2017
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
TBI-induced behavioral deficits, such as learning and memory, neurological motor impairments, post-traumatic convulsions or seizures, and anxiety also respond to manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. As such, the endocannabinoid system possesses potential drugable receptor and enzyme targets for the treatment of diverse TBI pathology.
CBG anti-inflamatory in vitro In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Jun 2018
Ingestion Method: 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 uM
Furthermore, CBG pre-treatment counteracted not only inflammation, as demonstrated by the reduction of IL-1beta-, TNF-alpha-, IFN-g and PPARg protein levels assessed by immunocytochemistry, but also oxidative stress in NSC-34 cells treated with the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7.
cannabis,THC,CBD pain,anti-inflamatory via review Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment Sept 2018
Neutral  The clinical evidence collated to date is confounded by a number of factors, including studies with mixed patient populations, use of different cannabinoid preparations and in various formulations, and wide dosing ranges. Cannabis-derivative-based medicines may be able to enrich the drug treatment arsenal for chronic pain and inflammation conditions, although this is very much open to debate at the moment.
cannabis anti-inflamatory in vitro The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis Dec 2018
The different Cannabis chemotypes showed distinct compositions of terpenoids. The terpenoid-rich essential oils exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in vitro and in vivo, which vary according to their composition.
Limonene pain,anti-inflamatory in mice Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Jun 1999
The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.
Linalool anti-inflamatory,pain in mice (-)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain. Jan 2003
Ingestion Method: 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg
The more pronounced effect of (-)-linalool on the writhing test with respect to the hot plate test is consistent with the observation that (-)-linalool possesses anti-inflammatory activity.
Linalool anti-inflamatory in rats anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Dec 2002
Ingestion Method: essential oil from Citrus aurantium L.
The results obtained indicate that linalool and the corresponding acetate play a major role in the anti-inflammatory activity displayed by the essential oils containing them, and provide further evidence suggesting that linalool and linalyl acetate-producing species are potentially anti-inflammatory agents.
Myrcene,Limonene anti-inflamatory in mice Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species. Aug 2003
The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene.
Humulene anti-inflamatory in mice Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea Aug 2007
The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug.
Humulene anti-inflamatory,pain in mice Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene in mice Nov 2008
Taken together, these findings further contribute to an explanation of the topical and systemic anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties previously reported for the essential oil and for alpha-humulene obtained from Cordia verbenacea, they also provide support for the clinical studies conducted with the phytomedicine Acheflan.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory in vitro Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Myrciaria tenella and Calycorectes sellowianus. Apr 2010
Ingestion Method: M. tenella oil
However, in the systemic treatment with the essential oils (50 mg/kg p.o.) only the M. tenella oil was able to significantly reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for indomethacin (10 mg/kg), the positive control.
CBG,CBD anti-inflamatory in vitro Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa. Jan 2011
Action Pathway: COX-1/2
In the present work, the six cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-?-THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-?-THC-A), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), isolated from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated for their effects on prostaglandin production. For this purpose an in vitro enzyme based COX-1/COX-2 inhibition assay and a cell based prostaglandin production radioimmunoassay were used.
Bisabolol anti-inflamatory in vitro Inhibitory effects of (-)-Alpha-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Oct 2011
Our results indicate that (-)-alpha--bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-kappa-B and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling.
Bisabolol anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via model Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (-)-Alpha-bisabolol in rodents. Dec 2011
These findings suggest that the anti-nociceptive action of (-)-alpha--bisabolol is not linked to a central mechanism but instead is related to the inflammatory process.
Phellandrene,Terpinolene,Cymene,Pinene cancer, anti-inflamatory,cancer,breast cancer in vitro Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils Apr 2012
The Solanum essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity in addition to the potent cytotoxic potential of S. erianthum leaf oil against Hs 578T and PC-3 cells.
CBD anti-inflamatory in vitro Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor. Jan 2012
Ingestion Method: 20mg/kg
Action Pathway: A2A
Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.
CBC anti-inflamatory in mice Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice. Jun 2012
CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,cancer in mice D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis. Aug 2012
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/kg
We found that D-limonene (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) treatments to the mouse skin significantly reduced the TPA-induced (a) edema and hyperplasia (p < 0.001); (b) expression of cyclooxygenase-2; (c) ornithine decarboxylase activity (p < 0.001); and (d) [(3)H] thymidine incorporation into DNA (p < 0.001)
Borneol anti-inflamatory in vitro Identification of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone as anti-inflammatory compounds in a Salvia officinalis L. infusion using human gingival fibroblasts. Mar 2013
Ingestion Method: Salvia officinalis L. infusion
Therefore, the volatile compounds were found to be more effective than rosmarinic acid. 1,8-Cineole, borneol, camphor, and alpha--/beta--thujone chiefly contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of sage infusion in human gingival fibroblasts.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,colon in rats via experiment Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans. July 2013
Ingestion Method: 10mg/kg oral
In conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation.
Cymene anti-inflamatory in vitro Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Apr 2014
The data showed that treatment with the p-cymene markedly attenuated inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-kappa-B protein level in the lungs, improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory,pain in mice via model The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Apr 2014
Action Pathway: CB2
In a neuropathic pain model the chronic oral administration of BCP attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and reduced spinal neuroinflammation. Importantly, we found no signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of BCP after prolonged treatment.
HU-308 anti-inflamatory,arthritis in vitro Expression of cannabinoid receptor 2 and its inhibitory effects on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis May 2014
Action Pathway: CB2
In RA-FLS, proinflammatory mediators up-regulate the expression of CB2R, which negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs. These data suggest that CB2R may be a potential therapeutic target of RA.
Bisabolol anti-inflamatory in vitro Alpha-(-)-bisabolol reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ameliorates skin inflammation. 2014
These findings suggested that alpha--(-)-bisabolol may be a useful therapeutic candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation.
Linalool anti-inflamatory in mice Linalool and linalool complexed in Beta-cyclodextrin produce anti-hyperalgesic activity and increase Fos protein expression in animal model for fibromyalgia. Oct 2014
Ingestion Method: 25 mg/kg, p.o.
LIN or LIN-CD produced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of mechanical hyperalgesia on chronic non-inflammatory muscle pain model, which remained for 24 h only in LIN-CD, and these compounds significantly (p < 0.05) activated neurons of the locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe magnus, and periaqueductal gray areas.
Phellandrene cancer,anti-inflamatory,leukemia in mice via experiment Alpha-phellandrene, a Natural Active Monoterpene, Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo by Enhancing Macrophague Phagocytosis and Natural Killer Cell Activity Aug 2014
Ingestion Method: oral
alpha--PA increased the percentage of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker) and MAC3 (macrophages) markers but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocytes) cell surface markers.
Terpinene,Pinene anti-inflamatory in vitro Chemical composition and anti-inflammation activity of essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower. May 2014
Ingestion Method: essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower
The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.
Caryophyllene,Myrcene arthritis,anti-inflamatory in vitro Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis Mar 2015
These data show that myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation.
Linalool anti-inflamatory in mice Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappa-B activation. Dec 2015
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-kappa-B activation.
Cymene anti-inflamatory,copd in mice via experiment Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Dec 2016
Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.
Limonene anti-oxidant,anti-inflamatory,intenstine in rats D-limonene exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in an ulcerative colitis rat model via regulation of iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and ERK signaling pathways. Apr 2017
Action Pathway: iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta-
In conclusion, D-limonene reduced MMP-2 and -9 mRNA expression levels via regulation of the iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, TGF-beta- and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in a UC rat model, indicating its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Terpineol anti-inflamatory in mice Alcoholic monoterpenes found in essential oil of aromatic spices reduce allergic inflammation by the modulation of inflammatory cytokines Sep 2017
Monoterpenes significantly decrease leucocyte migration and TNF-alpha- levels, possibly by modulation of COX, PGE2 and H1 receptor, as demonstrated by molecular docking. These findings indicate that alcoholic monoterpenes can be an alternative for treatment of allergic inflammation and asthma.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory in vitro Anti-inflammatory and anti-edematogenic action of the Croton campestris A. St.-Hil (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil and the compound beta--caryophyllene in in vivo models. Mar 2018
This study supports the hypothesis that beta--caryophyllene, in association with other constituents present in the EOCC such as 1,8-cineole, contributed to the anti-inflammatory effect observed, in addition to suggesting that one of the mechanisms of action probably involves the inhibition of cytokines with the involvement of the arachidonic acid and histamine pathways.
Nerolidol anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment Chemical composition, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil of Bougainvillea glabra Mar 2019
Ingestion Method: 100-200mg/kg
Positive  The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oil was statistically significant p < 0.001 at all doses of when compared to the control while exhibiting an activity in tandem with the standard drug. For the 1st and 2nd h, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the anti-inflammatory activity was statistically very significant (p < 0.001)
JWH-015 ra,anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist JWH-015 Inhibits Interleukin-1beta--Induced Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts and in Adjuvant Induced Arthritis Rat via Glucocorticoid Receptor May 2019
Action Pathway: GR
Overall, our findings suggest that CB2 agonist JWH-015 elicits anti-inflammatory effects partly through GR. This compound could further be tested as an adjunct therapy for the management of pain and tissue destruction as a non-opioid for RA.
Cannflavin anti-inflamatory in vitro Biosynthesis of cannflavins A and B from Cannabis sativa L May 2019
Cannflavins exhibit anti-inflammatory activity that is thirty times that of aspirin.
Caryophyllene anti-inflamatory in rats via experiment Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene. Oct 1996
Thus, beta-caryophyllene elicited anti-inflammatory effects without any indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, this compound manifested cytoprotective effects, rendering the two-dimensional efficacious beta-caryophyllene to be a clinically safe and potentially useful agent.
CBC anti-inflamatory in vitro,mice Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene Jun 1980
CBC was tested in vivo using the rat paw edema test and in vitro using the erythrocyte membrane stabilization assay. CBC was as effective as phenylbutazone (PBZ) at equivalent doses.