Cannabis and cancer
Browse the latest research linking medical marijuana / medicinal cannabis and cancer.
While Cannabis is an accepted treatment for several cancer side-effects, direct evidence in humans is lacking. Cannabinoid signalling implicated in vitro in the growth cycles of several tumor types.
Click on a study title below to open a new tab with full article, or click on a compound to see it's full list of research.
Compounds Topics Title Date
WIN55 cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in prostate cancer cells through CB1and CB2receptors Jul 2019
Our results reveal that treatment with 20mM WIN resulted in a significant reduction in the proliferation of DU145 and PC3 cells after 24 h compared to control (p<0.05).
Myrcene cancer,breast cancer in vitro via experiment Anti-invasive effect of Beta-myrcene, a component of the essential oil from Pinus koraiensis cones, in metastatic MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells Aug 2015
Pretreatment with beta--myrcene suppressed TNFalpha--induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase and NF-kappa-B as well as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, beta--myrcene inhibited TNFalpha--induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells as determined by three-dimensional spheroid invasion assays.
WIN55,JWH-133 cancer,skin cancer in mice via experiment Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors Jan 2003
Action Pathway: CB2
Local administration of the mixed CB1/CB2 agonist WIN-55,212-2 or the selective CB2 agonist JWH-133 induced a considerable growth inhibition of malignant tumors generated by inoculation of epidermal tumor cells into nude mice
CBD cancer,glioma in vitro via experiment Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism Apr 2005
These results reinforce the evidence of antitumoral properties of CBD, demonstrating its ability to limit tumor invasion, although the mechanism of its pharmacological effects remains to be clarified.
ANA cancer,breast cancer in vitro The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation Jun 1998
These data suggest that anandamide blocks human breast cancer cell proliferation through CB1-like receptor-mediated inhibition of endogenous prolactin action at the level of prolactin receptor.
JWH-015 cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-Methanandamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2 Sep 2009
Action Pathway: CB2
This study defines the involvement of CB2-mediated signalling in the in vivo and in vitrogrowth inhibition of prostate cancer cells and suggests that CB2 agonists have potential therapeutic interest and deserve to be explored in the management of prostate cancer.
cannabinoids cancer,skin cancer via review The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities Jul 2009
Collectively, it seems that the main physiological function of the cutaneous ECS is to constitutively control the proper and well-balanced proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as immune competence and/or tolerance, of skin cells.
cannabis cancer,testicular cancer in humans via study (n=369) Association of Marijuana Use and the Incidence of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Mar 2009
Negative  We observed an association between marijuana use and occurrence of nonseminoma germ cell tumors of the testis. Additional studies of TGCTs are needed to test this hypothesis, including molecular analyses of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid signaling that may provide clues to biologic mechanisms.
CBD,THC cancer,glioma in vitro Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival Jan 2010
Our results suggest that the addition of CBD to delta-9-THC may improve the overall effectiveness of delta-9-THC in the treatment of glioblastoma in cancer patients.
cannabinoids cancer in vitro via experiment The Expression Level of CB1 and CB2 Receptors Determines Their Efficacy at Inducing Apoptosis in Astrocytomas Jan 2010
Action Pathway: ERK1/2
Remarkably, cannabinoids applied at high concentration induce apoptosis in all subclones independently of CB1, CB2 and AKT, but still through a mechanism involving ERK1/2.
JWH-015,WIN55 cancer,lung cancer in vitro Cannabinoid Receptors, CB1 and CB2, as Novel Targets for Inhibition of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Growth and Metastasis Nov 2010
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Furthermore, we have shown that the treatment of NSCLC cell lines (A549 and SW-1573) with CB1/CB2 and CB2-specific agonists Win55,212-2 and JWH-015, respectively, significantly attenuated random as well as growth factor-directed in vitro chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in these cells
Bisabolol cancer in vitro via experiment Pro-apoptotic activity of Alpha-bisabolol in preclinical models of primary human acute leukemia cells Nov 2010
Our study provides the first evidence that alpha--bisabolol is a pro-apoptotic agent for primary human acute leukemia cells.
THC,JWH-015 cancer,liver in vitro Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma: role of AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy Jul 2011
Action Pathway: CB2
We found that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC, the main active component of Cannabis sativa) and JWH-015 (a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist) reduced the viability of the human HCC cell lines HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) and HuH-7 (hepatocellular carcinoma cells), an effect that relied on the stimulation of CB2 receptor.
JWH-015 cancer,breast cancer in mice Crosstalk between Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 in Modulating Breast Cancer Growth and Invasion Sep 2011
Furthermore, our studies have revealed that JWH-015 significantly inhibits phosphorylation of CXCR4 and its downstream signaling in vivo in orthotopic and spontaneous breast cancer MMTV-PyMT mouse model systems.
cannabis,cannabinoids cancer,prostate cancer via review The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications Jun 2012
It is our conclusion that it would be of interest to conduct clinical trials involving medicinal cannabis or other cannabinoid agonists, comparing clinical markers such as PSA with controls, especially in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer, whom would not only benefit from the possible anti-androgenic effects of cannabinoids but also from analgesia of bone pain, improving quality of life, while reducing narcotic consumption and preventing opioid dependence.
Terpinolene cancer in vitro Terpinolene, a component of herbal sage, downregulates AKT1 expression in K562 cells Nov 2011
Action Pathway: AKT1
Terpinolene markedly reduced the protein expression of AKT1; however, linalool or carnosol did not downregulate it.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in mice Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Aug 2011
Action Pathway: Id-1
Our data demonstrate the efficacy of CBD in pre-clinical models of breast cancer. The results have the potential to lead to the development of novel non-toxic compounds for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis, and the information gained from these experiments broaden our knowledge of both Id-1 and cannabinoid biology as it pertains to cancer progression.
CBD cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms Jan 2013
Action Pathway: TRPM8
Cannabidiol (CBD) significantly inhibited cell viability. Other compounds became effective in cells deprived of serum for 24 h. Several BDS were more potent than the pure compounds in the presence of serum
CBD cancer in vitro via review Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug April 2012
The present review will focus on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer and highlights the importance of exploring CBD/CBD analogues as alternative therapeutic agents.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in vitro Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer Jan 2015
We show here -for the first time-that CBD significantly inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced proliferation and chemotaxis of breast cancer cells
cannabinoids,CBD,THC cancer via article Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids Mar 2016
Action Pathway: VEGF,CB1,CB2
In cancer cells, cannabinoids block the activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) pathway, an inducer of angiogenesis.
Geraniol cancer,breast cancer,lung cancer via review The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review) May 2016
Geraniol is a dietary monoterpene alcohol that is found in the essential oils of aromatic plants. To date, experimental evidence supports the therapeutic or preventive effects of geraniol on different types of cancer, such as breast, lung, colon, prostate, pancreatic, and hepatic cancer, and has revealed the mechanistic basis for its pharmacological actions.
Guaiol cancer,lung cancer in mice via experiment (-)-Guaiol regulates RAD51 stability via autophagy to induce cell apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer Sept 2016
Action Pathway: RAD51
The following mechanism studies show that (-)-Guaiol is involved in cell autophagy to regulate the expression of RAD51, leading to double-strand breaks triggered cell apoptosis.
cannabis cancer,testicular cancer in humans via study (n=49343) Cannabis use and incidence of testicular cancer: a 42-year follow-up of Swedish men between 1970 and 2011 Feb 2018
Neutral  No evidence was found of a significant relation between lifetime ever cannabis use and the subsequent development of testicular cancer [n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.42, 95% CI, 0.83, 2.45]. Heavy cannabis use (defined as usage of more than 50 times in lifetime, as measured at conscription) was associated with the incidence of testicular cancer (n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; AHR 2.57, 95% CI, 1.02, 6.50).
cannabinoids cancer,pancreatic cancer,lung cancer via review Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Cancer Treatment With Cannabinoids Apr 2018
This study explores the potential of combination approaches employing CBDs with radiotherapy (RT) or smart biomaterials toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy during treatment of pancreatic and lung cancers.
Pinene cancer in vitro alpha--pinene regulates miR-221 and induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells Dec 2018
Additionally, alpha--pinene was found to trigger oxidative stress and induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. alpha--pinene, therefore, represents a potential chemotherapeutic compound for the treatment of HCC.
THC,CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro Synthetic Cannabinoid Activity Against Colorectal Cancer Cells Dec 2018
In summary, we identified 10 synthetic cannabinoids demonstrating reproducible activity against human cells, with seven compounds reducing viability only in CRC cells.
CBD cancer,lung cancer in humans via case study (n=1) Striking lung cancer response to self-administration of cannabidiol: A case report and literature review Feb 2019
Prior work has shown that cannabidiol may have anti-neoplastic properties and enhance the immune response to cancer. The data presented here indicate that cannabidiol might have led to a striking response in a patient with lung cancer.
cannabinoids cancer via review Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation Feb 2019
In vitro and in vivo cancer models show that cannabinoids can effectively modulate tumor growth, however, the antitumor effects appear to be largely dependent on cancer type and drug dose/concentration. Understanding how cannabinoids are able to regulate essential cellular processes involved in tumorigenesis, such as progression through the cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death, as well as the interactions between cannabinoids and the immune system, are crucial for improving existing and developing new therapeutic approaches for cancer patients.
THC cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in human prostate PC-3 cells via a receptor-independent mechanism. Sep 1999
The effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psycho-active component of marijuana, in human prostate cancer cells PC-3 was investigated. THC caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological and biochemical changes induced by THC in prostate PC-3 cells shared the characteristics of an apoptotic phenomenon.
THC cancer,lung cancer in mice Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits antitumor immunity by a CB2 receptor-mediated, cytokine-dependent pathway. Jul 2000
Negative  In this study, we show that Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, suppresses host immune reactivity against lung cancer.
JWH-133 cancer,glioma in mice via experiment Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Aug 2001
Ingestion Method: 50 microg/day
Action Pathway: CB2
Experiments carried out with C6 glioma cells in culture evidenced the internalization of the CB(2) but not the CB(1) receptor upon JWH-133 challenge and showed that selective activation of the CB(2) receptor signaled apoptosis via enhanced ceramide synthesis de novo. These results support a therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas devoid of psychotropic side effects.
THC cancer,blood cancer in vitro Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease. Jul 2002
Action Pathway: CB2
Exposure of murine tumors EL-4, LSA, and P815 to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro led to a significant reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis.
ANA cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of anandamide in human prostatic cancer cell lines: implication of epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation and ceramide production. Jun 2003
The potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of ANA on metastatic prostatic cancer cells might provide basis for the design of new therapeutic agents for effective treatment of recurrent and invasive prostatic cancers.
Humulene cancer in vitro Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action May 2003
Balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cellular GSH content and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil.
Limonene cancer,stomach cancer in vitro [D-limonene induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells]. July 2003
D-limonene could induce the formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of bcl-2 protein decreased and p53 protein increased in BGC-823 cells treated with D-limonene, compared with the control cells.
CBD cancer,glioma in mice via experiment Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. Mar 2004
In conclusion, the nonpsychoactive CBD was able to produce a significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting a possible application of CBD as an antineoplastic agent.
CBD cancer,leukemia in vitro Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Oct 2003
Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line.
THC,WIN55,HU-210 cancer in vitro Cannabinoids induce cancer cell proliferation via tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17)-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Mar 2004
Negative  Taken together, our data show that concentrations of THC comparable with those detected in the serum of patients after THC administration accelerate proliferation of cancer cells instead of apoptosis and thereby contribute to cancer progression in patients.
Geraniol cancer,breast cancer in vitro Geraniol and beta-ionone inhibit proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells independent of effects on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Nov 2004
These findings indicate that mechanisms other than impaired mevalonate synthesis mediate the anti-proliferative and cell cycle regulatory effects of beta-ionone and geraniol in human breast cancer cells.
THC cancer,leukemia in vitro Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway. Feb 2005
We have shown that THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis, even at 1 x IC(50) (inhibitory concentration 50%) concentrations and as early as 6 hours after exposure to the drug. These effects were seen in leukemic cell lines (CEM, HEL-92, and HL60) as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
THC cancer,breast cancer in mice Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances breast cancer growth and metastasis by suppression of the antitumor immune response. Mar 2005
Action Pathway: CB2
Negative  Furthermore, exposure of mice to Delta9-THC led to significantly elevated 4T1 tumor growth and metastasis due to inhibition of the specific antitumor immune response in vivo. The suppression of the antitumor immune response was mediated primarily through CB2 as opposed to CB1.
WIN55 cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Cannabinoid receptor as a novel target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Mar 2005
Our results suggest that WIN-55,212-2 or other non-habit-forming cannabinoid receptor agonists could be developed as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer.
cannabinoids cancer,leukemia in vitro The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Jul 2006
Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids exert pro-apoptotic actions in tumor cells via the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this effect has remained elusive. results presented here show that CB2 receptor activation signals apoptosis via a ceramide-dependent stimulation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway.
CBD,CBG,CBC cancer,breast cancer in vitro Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. May 2006
Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that, of the five natural compounds tested, cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth (IC(50) between 6.0 and 10.6 microM), with significantly lower potency in noncancer cells. The cannabidiol-rich extract was equipotent to cannabidiol, whereas cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank of potency.
THC cancer,breast cancer in vitro Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation. Jul 2006
Here, we show that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through activation of CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, reduces human breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the progression of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.
cannabinoids cancer,pancreatic cancer in vitro Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes. Jul 2006
Action Pathway: p8
Studies conducted with MiaPaCa2 and Panc1 cell lines showed that cannabinoid administration (a) induced apoptosis, (b) increased ceramide levels, and (c) up-regulated mRNA levels of the stress protein p8.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma in vitro Cannabinoid receptors in human astroglial tumors. Aug 2006
We conclude that cannabinoid therapy of human gliomas targets not only receptors on tumor, but also on other cell types. Therefore, complex and potential side-effects should be considered carefully.
THC cancer,blood cancer in vitro Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria. Aug 2006
The data showed that THC down-regulated Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK/RSK pathway leading to translocation of Bad to mitochondria. THC also decreased the phosphorylation of Akt.
cannabinoids cancer,skin cancer in mice Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. Dec 2006
Here, we evaluated the efficacy of cannabinoid receptor agonists, a new family of potential antitumoral compounds, at skin melanoma. Human melanomas and melanoma cell lines express CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Activation of these receptors decreased growth, proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, and increased apoptosis, of melanomas in mice.
HU-331 cancer in vitro,mice HU-331, a novel cannabinoid-based anticancer topoisomerase II inhibitor. Jan 2007
A new anticancer quinone (HU-331) was synthesized from cannabidiol. It shows significant high efficacy against human cancer cell lines in vitro and against in vivo tumor grafts in nude mice.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in mice via model Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Nov 2007
In conclusion, CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.
THC cancer,breast cancer in mice via experiment JunD is involved in the antiproliferative effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human breast cancer cells. Aug 2008
Action Pathway: JunD,p8
It has been recently shown that cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, inhibit cell cycle progression of human breast cancer cells. Here we studied the mechanism of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) antiproliferative action in these cells, and show that it involves the modulation of JunD, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family
cannabinoids cancer,colon cancer in vitro Estrogenic induction of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in human colon cancer cell lines. Jan 2008
The CB1 receptor can be considered an estrogen-responsive gene in DLD-1, HT-29 and SW620 cells. Up-regulation of CB1 expression by 17beta-estradiol is a further mechanism of estrogens to control colon cancer proliferation.
cannabinoids cancer,colon cancer in vitro Cannabinoid receptor activation induces apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Dec 2008
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF-alpha acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma in vitro Predominant CB2 receptor expression in endothelial cells of glioblastoma in humans. Jun 2009
Action Pathway: CB2
In glioblastoma endothelial cells, CB1 and CB2 receptors were present in about 38% and 54% of the cells respectively. In comparison to CB1, an elevated CB2 receptor expression was identified in glioblastoma.
WIN55 cancer,glioma in vitro Opposite changes in cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in human gliomas. May 2010
The present results demonstrate opposite changes in CB(1) and CB(2) receptor protein expression in human gliomas. These changes may be of interest for further research about the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in glial tumors.
THC cancer,oral cancer in vitro Cannabinoids inhibit cellular respiration of human oral cancer cells. 2010
A rapid decline in the rate of respiration was observed when Delta(9)-THC or Delta(8)-THC was added to the cells. The inhibition was concentration-dependent, and Delta(9)-THC was the more potent of the two compounds.
Dronabinol appetite boost,sleep,cancer in humans via placebo trial (n=47/65) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Sep 2011
Positive  THC-treated patients reported improved (P = 0.026) and enhanced (P < 0.001) chemosensory perception and food 'tasted better' (P = 0.04). Premeal appetite (P = 0.05) and proportion of calories consumed as protein increased compared with placebo (P = 0.008). THC-treated patients reported increased quality of sleep (P = 0.025) and relaxation (P = 0.045).
Phellandrene,Terpinolene,Cymene,Pinene cancer, anti-inflamatory,cancer,breast cancer in vitro Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils Apr 2012
The Solanum essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity in addition to the potent cytotoxic potential of S. erianthum leaf oil against Hs 578T and PC-3 cells.
Phellandrene,Terpinolene,Cymene,Pinene cancer, anti-inflamatory,cancer,breast cancer in vitro Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils Apr 2012
The Solanum essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity in addition to the potent cytotoxic potential of S. erianthum leaf oil against Hs 578T and PC-3 cells.
CBD cancer,lung cancer in mice Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Apr 2012
In athymic nude mice, CBD elicited a 2.6- and 3.0-fold increase of ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 protein in A549 xenografts, as compared to vehicle-treated animals, and an antimetastatic effect that was fully reversed by a neutralizing antibody against ICAM-1 [% metastatic lung nodules vs. isotype control (100%): 47.7% for CBD + isotype antibody and 106.6% for CBD + ICAM-1 antibody]. Overall, our data indicate that cannabinoids induce ICAM-1, thereby conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased cancer cell invasiveness.
CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Aug 2012
In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPARg-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.
Limonene anti-inflamatory,cancer in mice D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis. Aug 2012
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/kg
We found that D-limonene (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) treatments to the mouse skin significantly reduced the TPA-induced (a) edema and hyperplasia (p < 0.001); (b) expression of cyclooxygenase-2; (c) ornithine decarboxylase activity (p < 0.001); and (d) [(3)H] thymidine incorporation into DNA (p < 0.001)
Pinene cancer,pancreatic cancer in mice via experiment Protective effects of alpha-pinene in mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis Oct 2012
Ingestion Method: intraperitoneal
Intraperitoneal administration of alpha-pinene reduced the pancreatic weight (PW) to body weight (BW) ratio and the serum levels of amylase and lipase. Alpha-pinene treatment also reduced histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas and lungs.
Terpinolene anti-oxidant,cancer in vitro Anticancer and anti-oxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells. Sept 2013
Ingestion Method: 50-100mg/L
Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.
cannabinoids cancer,glioma via review Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas. Jan 2014
Positive  In all experimental studies included, cannabinoids exerted antitumoral activity in vitro and/or antitumoral evidence in vivo in several models of tumor cells and tumors.
Pinene cancer in vitro Inhibitory effects of alpha--pinene on hepatoma carcinoma cell proliferation. 2014
Further experiments showed that alpha--pinene inhibited BEL-7402 cells by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, downregulating Cdc25C mRNA and protein expression, and reducing cycle dependence on kinase 1(CDK1) activity.
Phellandrene cancer,anti-inflamatory,leukemia in mice via experiment Alpha-phellandrene, a Natural Active Monoterpene, Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo by Enhancing Macrophague Phagocytosis and Natural Killer Cell Activity Aug 2014
Ingestion Method: oral
alpha--PA increased the percentage of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker) and MAC3 (macrophages) markers but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocytes) cell surface markers.
CBD cancer,lung cancer in vitro Cannabinoids increase lung cancer cell lysis by lymphokine-activated killer cells via upregulation of ICAM-1. Nov 2014
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, enhanced the susceptibility of cancer cells to adhere to and subsequently be lysed by LAK cells, with both effects being reversed by a neutralizing ICAM-1 antibody
Pinene cancer in vitro Anti-tumor effect of Alpha-pinene on human hepatoma cell lines through inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Mar 2015
The results show that liver cancer cell growth was inhibited obviously with inhibitory rate of 79.3% in vitro and 69.1% in vivo, Chk1 and Chk2 levels were upregulated, CyclinB, CDC25 and CDK1 levels were downregulated.
Nerolidol cancer in mice Antitumor Properties of the leaf essential oil of Zornia brasiliensis. May 2015
In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Z. brasiliensis presents trans-nerolidol, germacrene D, trans-caryophyllene, alpha--humulene, and farnesene as major constituents and is able to inhibit cell proliferation in cultures as well as in tumor growth in mice.
Caryophyllene anti-oxidant,cancer,colon cancer in vitro The Anticancer, anti-oxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene Beta-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna Jun 2015
beta--caryophyllene demonstrated potent inhibition against clonogenicity, migration, invasion and spheroid formation in colon cancer cells. These results prompt us to state that beta--caryophyllene is the active principle responsible for the selective anticancer and antimicrobial activities of A. crassnia.
cannabinoids cancer,renal cell carcinoma,kidney cancer via review The Therapeutic Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) for Cancer and their Development: From Nature to Laboratory. Jan 2016
Despite recent developments in molecular biology, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the human kidney and their role in kidney cancer. To address this gap, we explore and demonstrate the role of the endocannabinoid system in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this brief overview, we elucidate the therapeutic aspects of the endocannabinoid system for various cancers and explain how this system can be used for treating kidney cancer.
Linalool cancer,leukemia,cervical cancer in vitro Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs. Nov 2015
Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase.
CBD cancer,breast cancer,prostate cancer via review Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Nov 2016
Cannabinoids, in particular the non-psychoactive CBD, may be promising tools in combination therapy for breast and prostate cancer, due to their direct antitumor effects, their ability to improve the efficacy of conventional antitumor drugs and their usefulness as palliative treatment. Nevertheless, deeper studies to fully establish the mechanisms responsible for their antitumour and pro-tumour properties and their formulation in efficient delivery systems remain to be established.
Geraniol cancer,prostate cancer in vitro Geraniol suppresses prostate cancer growth through down-regulation of E2F8. Oct 2016
Action Pathway: E2F8
Geraniol potently altered a gene expression profile and primarily down-regulated cell cycle-related gene signatures, compared to linalool, another structurally similar monoterpene that induces no apparent phenotypic changes. Master regulator analysis using the prostate cancer-specific regulatory interactome identified that the transcription factor E2F8 as a specific target molecule regulates geraniol-specific cell cycle signatures.
cannabinoids cancer via review A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids. Nov 2017
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2
Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) have been isolated and characterized from mammalian cells. Through cannabinoid receptor and non-receptor signaling pathways, cannabinoids show specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells, while protecting healthy tissue from apoptosis.
cannabinoids cancer via review Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs. Nov 2017
Accordingly, cannabinoid compounds have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and spreading in numerous rodent models. The underlying mechanisms include induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells as well as inhibition of tumor cell invasion and angiogenic features of endothelial cells.
Limonene anti-oxidant,cancer,diabetes,anti-viral via review Limonene: Aroma of innovation in health and disease. Mar 2018
The therapeutic effects of limonene have been extensively studied, proving anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic, antiviral, and gastroprotective effects, among other beneficial effects in health.
THC cancer,entourage in vitro Appraising the entourage effect: Antitumor action of a pure cannabinoid versus a botanical drug preparation in preclinical models of breast cancer. Nov 2018
The BDP was more potent than pure THC in producing antitumor responses in cell culture and animal models of ER+/PR+, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer. This increased potency was not due to the presence of the 5 most abundant terpenes in the preparation.
CBD cancer,breast cancer in vitro via experiment Novel mechanism of cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Oct 2018
Action Pathway: PPARg, mTOR and cyclin D1
Positive  In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay.
Guaiol,Caryophyllene cancer,lung cancer in vitro via experiment Bulnesia sarmientoi Supercritical Fluid Extract Exhibits Necroptotic Effects and Anti-Metastatic Activity on Lung Cancer Cells. Dec 2018
alpha--Guaiene, (-)-guaiol and beta--caryophyllene are responsible for most of the cytotoxic activity of BSE against these two cancer cell lines. Since BSE possesses significant cytotoxicity and anti-metastatic activity on A549 and H661 cells, it may serve as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancer.
CBD cancer,melanoma in mice via trial (n=18) Cannabinoids as a Potential New and Novel Treatment for Melanoma: A Pilot Study in a Murine Model. Mar 2019
Ingestion Method: 5 mg/kg
Positive  A significant decrease in tumor size was detected in mice treated with CBD when compared with the control group (P = 0.01). The survival curve of melanoma tumors treated with CBD increased when compared with the control group and was statistically significant (P = 0.04).
THC,CBD cancer,pancreatic cancer in humans via review Potential Use of Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer. Jan 2019
Action Pathway: CB1,CB2,GPR55
Neutral  Cannabinol receptors have been identified in pancreatic cancer with several studies showing in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Cannabinoids may be an effective adjunct for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data on the anticancer effectiveness of various cannabinoid formulations, treatment dosing, precise mode of action, and clinical studies are lacking.
CBD cancer,colon cancer in vitro via experiment Cannabidiol Enhances the Therapeutic Effects of TRAIL by Upregulating DR5 in Colorectal Cancer. May 2019
Action Pathway: DR5
Positive  Here, we found that the combination of cannabidiol and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) produces synergistic antitumor effects in vitro
cannabis cancer via review What is the evidence for cannabis use in otolaryngology?: A narrative review. May 2019
The majority were published in the last decade and pertain to the subspecialty of Head and Neck; specifically, its association with incident cancers. A small number of studies exist that suggest cannabis may be a useful therapy for Otolaryngological patients suffering from blepharospasm, the effects of radiation, and the psychological sequelae of receiving a cancer diagnosis.
cannabis cancer via review Opportunities for cannabis in supportive care in cancer. Aug 2019
There is a reasonable amount of evidence to consider cannabis for nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and pain as a supplement to first-line treatments. There is promising evidence to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal distress, and sleep disorders, but the literature is thus far too limited to recommend cannabis for these symptoms.
THC,CBD cancer in mice via experiment In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas. 1977
These drugs inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA acutely, but did not inhibit leucine uptake into tumor protein. At 24 h after treatment, cannabinoids did not inhibit thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA, leucine-3H uptake into protein or cytidine-3H into RNA.
Limonene cancer in rats via article Chemoprevention and therapy of cancer by d-limonene 1994
The naturally occurring monoterpene d-limonene has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against many rodent solid tumor types. The chemopreventive activity of limonene during initiation can be attributed to the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes, with resulting carcinogen detoxification.
CBG cancer,oral cancer in vitro Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified Lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Jun 1998
Cannabigerol (3) exhibited the highest growth-inhibitory activity against the cancer cell lines.
Pinene cancer in rats Antioxidative, anticancer and genotoxic properties of Alpha-pinene on N2a neuroblastoma cells Aug 2013
Overall our results suggest that alpha--pinene is of a limited therapeutic use as an anticancer agent.
Bisabolol cancer in rats via placebo trial Bisabolol ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats Jan 2015
Based on present study findings, it can be concluded that BSB may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent CSP-induced nephrotoxicity. Given the wide beneficial effects and safety profile of BSB along with its antitumorigenic activity, BSB has tremendous therapeutic potential in a multitude of other diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.
CBD cancer in vitro Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells. Jul 2019
These results indicated that CBD could induce G0-G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing ROS production, leading to the inhibition of SGC-7901 cell proliferation, thereby suggesting that CBD may have therapeutic effects on gastric cancer.
HU-331 cancer in mice via experiment A cannabinoid anticancer quinone, HU-331, is more potent and less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin: a comparative in vivo study. Aug 2007
In vivo, HU-331 was more active and less toxic than doxorubicin and thus it has a high potential for development as a new anticancer drug.