|HU-210||drug potentiator in rats via experiment||Repeated Cannabinoid Injections into the Rat Periaqueductal Gray Enhances Subsequent Morphine Antinociception||Aug 2008|
Action Pathway: CB1|
As hypothesized, there was no evidence of cross-tolerance between morphine and HU-210. In fact, cannabinoid pretreatment enhanced the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the ventrolateral PAG. These findings suggest that alternating opioid and cannabinoid treatment could be therapeutically advantageous by preventing the development of tolerance and enhancing morphine antinociception.
|cannabis,CBD||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial||Opposite Effects of delta--9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology||Feb 2010|
Ingestion Method: 10 mg of THC, 600 mg of CBD|
Positive delta--9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the striatum during verbal recall, in the hippocampus during the response inhibition task, in the amygdala when subjects viewed fearful faces, in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech, and in the occipital cortex during visual processing. In the second experiment, pretreatment with CBD prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms by delta--9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
|Sativex,CBD||drug potentiator,metabolism in humans via trial (n=9)||Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration.||Jan 2011|
|Decreases in mean 11-OH-THC Cmax and AUC0->10.5 hafter only high-dose Sativex might indicate that CBD does not interact with THC at lower doses (5 mg), but could alter THC metabolism at higher CBD doses (>=15 mg)|
|cannabis,CBD||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=48)||Individual and combined effects of acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on psychotomimetic symptoms and memory function||Sept 2018|
Ingestion Method: vaporized THC 8 mg vs CBD 16 mg vs THC 8 mg + CBD 16 mg|
Negative The main findings of this study were an increase in psychotomimetic symptoms following administration of both THC alone and the combination of THC + CBD. Administration of both THC and the combination (THC + CBD) increased negative symptoms on the BPRS, along with perceptual distortions and cognitive disorganisation on the PSI. Lower frequency cannabis users experienced a reduction in psychotomimetic symptoms following CBD alone compared with placebo. Both THC and THC + CBD impaired performance on episodic and working memory tasks. Contrary to hypotheses, CBD did not offset the psychotomimetic effects of THC.
|CBN||drug potentiator in humans via experiment (n=5)||Effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in man.||Jan 1975|
Ingestion Method: 50 mg CBN, 25 mg delta9-THC, 12.5 mg delta9-THC + 25 mg CBN, and 25 mg delta9-THC + 50 mg CBN (orally).|
It appears that CBN increases the effect of delta9-THC on some aspects of physiological and psychological processes, but that these effects are small and cannot account for the greater potency which has been reported when plant material is used.
|CBD||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=24)||Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract.||Dec 2005|
|Despite the large variation of the data, evidence emerged from the total of the results that CBD partially inhibits the CYP 2C catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC. The probability for this inhibition is particularly high for oral intake because THC and CBD attain relatively high concentrations in the liver and because of the high first-pass metabolism of THC. However, the effect of CBD is small in comparison to the variability caused by other factors.|
|Caryophyllene,Humulene||drug potentiator in vitro||Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel.||Dec 2007|
|Moreover, beta-caryophyllene potentiated the anticancer activity of paclitaxel on MCF-7, DLD-1 and L-929 cell lines. The highest potentiating effect was obtained in DLD-1 cells treated with paclitaxel combined with 10 microg mL(-1) beta-caryophyllene, which increased the paclitaxel activity about 10-fold.|
|Borneol||drug potentiator in mice||Effect of borneol on the distribution of gastrodin to the brain in mice via oral administration.||Feb 2008|
|Compared with the administration of gastrodin alone, gastrodin coadministrated with borneol could have been rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; the peak time of gastrodin in the plasma became shorter (5-15 vs. 30 min); the bioavailability of gastrodigenin in the brain was increased by 33.6-108.8%; and obvious brain-targeting effect was observed.|
|Borneol||drug potentiator in rats||Improved blood-brain barrier distribution: Effect of borneol on the brain pharmacokinetics of kaempferol in rats by in vivomicrodialysis sampling||Mar 2015|
|Borneol can enhance the blood brain barrier permeability and improve the transportation of Kaempferol to brain.|
|cannabis,CBD||drug potentiator in humans via review||Interaction between warfarin and cannabis||Jan 2019|
|The in vitro study indicated that THC inhibits the CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of warfarin. One case study reported of a man who on two occasions of increased marijuana use experienced INR values above 10 as well as bleeding. The other case study reported of a patient who initiated treatment with a liquid formulation of cannabidiol for the management of epilepsy, ultimately necessitating a 30% reduction in warfarin dose to maintain therapeutic INR values.|
|CBD,THC||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=36)||A randomised controlled trial of vaporised delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination in frequent and infrequent cannabis users: acute intoxication effects.||Feb 2019|
|CBD showed some intoxicating properties relative to placebo. Low doses of CBD when combined with THC enhanced, while high doses of CBD reduced the intoxicating effects of THC. The enhancement of intoxication by low-dose CBD was particularly prominent in infrequent cannabis users and was consistent across objective and subjective measures.|
|CBD||drug potentiator in humans via article||Evidence of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and tacrolimus.||Apr 2019|
|A participant in a CBD clinical trial for epilepsy who was also receiving tacrolimus showed an approximately 3-fold increase in dose-normalized tacrolimus concentrations while receiving 2000-2900 mg/day of CBD.|
|cannabis,CBD||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial (n=17)||Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain's resting-state functional connectivity.||Apr 2019|
Ingestion Method: cannabis 8mg THC, cannabis 8mg THC + 10mg CBD|
Positive THC disrupts the DMN, and the PCC is a key brain region involved in the subjective experience of THC intoxication. CBD restores disruption of the salience network by THC, which may explain its potential to treat disorders of salience such as psychosis and addiction.
|CBD||drug potentiator in humans via placebo trial||Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects.||Mar 1976|
Ingestion Method: placebo/25 mug/kg of THC + placebo/150 mug/kg of CBD|
Positive CBD significantly attenuated the subjective euphoria of THC. Psychomotor impairment due to THC was not significantly altered by the simultaneous administration of CBD, but a trend indicating a decrease in THC-like effects was observed after the combination.
|cannabis||drug potentiator via review||The Potential for Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Cannabis Products and Conventional Medications.||Sep 2019|
|Medications that are prominent substrates for CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 may be particularly at risk of altered disposition by concomitant use of cannabis or 1 or more of its constituents. Caution should also be given when coadministered drugs are metabolized by UGT or CES1, on which subject the information remains limited and further investigation is warranted. Conversely, conventional drugs with strong inhibitory or inductive effects on CYP3A4 are expected to affect CBD disposition.|
|cannabis||drug potentiator in humans via case study (n=1)||Probable Interaction Between Warfarin and Inhaled and Oral Administration of Cannabis.||Jul 2019|
|The elevation in INR can be explained by the inhibition of CYP2C9 by [edible] cannabis use causing decreased metabolism of warfarin. The interaction between warfarin and cannabis was determined to be probable using the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale.|